What Mutualism Was: An Incomplete History of Mutualist Tendencies

It has been well over a decade since I started piecing together the pieces of mutualist history. At the time, the work had a curious urgency, as the handful of us who had gravitated to the “mutualist” label had a lot of ground to cover in order to really understand just what we had implicated ourselves in. The specific project of sketching all that early history is one in which I have invested less energy as the years went on, but I’ve never stopped documenting the bits of history that I have found. The links here will form an evolving and definitely incomplete history of the various tendencies that have been called “mutualist,” but I think even this fragmentary documentary history is quite useful for those now facing the same questions we did a decade ago.

I’m now in the midst of updating and consolidating this material, as I start to work on a book-length history of mutualism.


What Mutualism Was:

An Incomplete History of Mutualist Tendencies

  1. Mapping Mutualism
  2. Prehistories
  3. The Kernel(?) of the Problem(?)
  4. The Mutualist” (1826)
  5. A Documentary History of the Movement for Equitable Commerce (1827–1905)
  6. Early uses of the term “capitalisme” in French
  7. Lewis Masquerier in “The Free Enquirer” (1834)
  8. Lewis Masquerier in “The Crisis” (1834)
  9. Lewis Masquerier in “The New Moral World” (1836–1841)
  10. As it turns out, property was already theft in 1838
  11. Edward Kellogg, 1790-1858
  12. Joshua King Ingalls among the Universalists (1840–1847)
  13. William B. Greene at 22: “First Principles” (1842)
  14. Pierre Leroux in “The Present” and “The Spirit of the Age” (1843–1849)
  15. Declaration of Independence, of the Producing from the Non-Producing Class (1844)
  16. William B. Greene’s Articles on Transcendentalism (1845-1872)
  17. Thomas and Maria L. Varney—The other “Equitable Commerce” of 1846
  18. Joshua King Ingalls in “The Univercœlum” (1847–1849)
  19. Maria L. Varney in “The Herald of Truth” (1847–1848)
  20. William B. Greene in “The Worcester Palladium” (1848–1868)
  21. A Transcendentalist in Political Economy” (1849)
  22. 1850: The Hotbed of Mutual Banking Agitation
  23. Mutualist Townships: Albert Brisbane and J. K. Ingalls (1849–1850)
  24. Burke + Warren, 1850
  25. 1853: William B. Greene at 34
  26. John Adams, mutual bank advocate
  27. William Pare on equitable commerce (1854)
  28. A glimpse of William B. Greene in 1854
  29. Practical application of the cost principle in Massachusetts (1863)
  30. French mutualism beyond Proudhon
  31. Mutualists in the First International
  32. Lewis Masquerier’s “Sociology” Reconstructed (1869–1877)
  33. I hope to do some work for the Labor Cause…” (Benj. R. Tucker, 1872)
  34. Angela T. Heywood in “The Word” (1873–1881)
  35. Sidney H. Morse, “Liberty and Wealth” (1882)
  36. J. K. Ingalls, Reminiscences of an Octogenarian (1897)