What Mutualism Was: An Incomplete History of Mutualist Tendencies


It has been over a decade since I started piecing together the pieces of mutualist history. At the time, the work had a curious urgency, as the handful of us who had gravitated to the “mutualist” label had a lot of ground to cover in order to really understand just what we had implicated ourselves in. The specific project of sketching all that early history is one in which I have invested less energy as the years went on, but I’ve never stopped documenting the bits of history that I have found. The links here will form an evolving and definitely incomplete history of the various tendencies that have been called “mutualist,” but I think even this fragmentary documentary history is quite useful for those now facing the same questions we did a decade ago.

What Mutualism Was

  1. Mapping Mutualism
  2. Prehistories
  3. The Kernel(?) of the Problem(?)
  4. A Mutualist” of 1826
  5. Early uses of the term “capitalisme” in French
  6. As it turns out, property was already theft in 1838
  7. Edward Kellogg, 1790-1858
  8. (1845-1872)
  9. (1849)
  10. (1854)
  11. Mutualists in the First International
  12. (Benj. R. Tucker)
  13. (poem) (1874)
  14.  (1933)