The Life and Astonishing Adventures of John Daniel (1770)



A Smith at Royston in Hertfordshire,

For a Course of Seventy Years.



The melancholy Occasion of his Travels, His Shipwreck with one Companion on a desolate Island. Their way of Life. His accidental discovery of a Woman for his Companion. Their peopling the Island.


A Description of a most surprising Eagle, invented by his Son Jacob, on which he flew to the Moon, with some Account of its Inhabitants. His return, and accidental Fall into the Habitation of a Sea Monster, with whom he lived two Years. His further Excursions in Search of England. His Residence in Lapland, and Travels to Norway, from whence he arrived at Aldborough, and farther Transactions till his Death, in 1711. Aged 97.








The author, John Daniel, is bred a smith under his father. His father’s second marriage. His mother-in-law would debauch him; uses stratagems. Flies from his father’s.

BEING about to commit to writing the transactions of my own life for upwards of seventy years, and therein to give an account of some of the most surprising adventures that ever befel any one man in the universe; I shall not pursue the usual method, of setting out my birth and parentage, with other minute occurrences of my childhood; but shall content myself, with leaving my family in their native obscurity, and shall only declare, that my father Ralph Daniel, was a house-smith at Royston in Hertfordshire, and that when I was about fourteen years old, he bound me apprentice to him, with whom I served out my time, and was acknowledged by all his customers to be a very good proficient in my way, giving a general satisfaction to every one that I worked for; insomuch, that when I came out of my time, I had several offers of sums of money to set me up for myself, and had certainly embraced those proposals, from the great prospect I had of business, but for the respect that I bore to my father; who being fully sensible of the prejudice it must have been to him, intreated me to continue as his journeyman for some few years longer, till I might be better practised in my profession, and possibly might meet with something more to my advantage, than I could then expect from so early an appearance in life on my own footing. I therefore entered into articles with him, for remaining in his service three years, at a certain wages, lodging and board, and wrought with great assiduity at his forge. My father was somewhat in years, being near sixty, and (having lived a widower for eight years) in about six months after I had made my agreement with him, he brought home a young wife, scarce turned of twenty. At her first coming home, (for my father had kept all knowledge of his courtship from me) I grew very uneasy, and intimated to him, that if I had in the least expected to have lived under a mistress as well as a master, I should never have consented to have obliged myself to continue with him for the new term.

My father seemed very sorry for my concern, but assured me, that his new wife would claim no pre-eminence over me, or have any thing to do with me; and withal, prevailed with me to behave civilly and kindly to her, for his sake; and I believe he gave her the same caution, with respect to me; for from the first week of her being settled in the family, I could plainly perceive, either that she was an intolerable hypocrite, or that I was her no small favourite; and I could visibly collect, that her civil and obliging treatment of me, gave my father a very sensible pleasure.

My father had been nightly used to smoak his pipe, and drink a cup with some neighbours, who met at a public house adjacent as constantly as the clock struck eight, and parted so sure as it had advanced to the hour of ten; and this was his accustomed practice throughout the whole year. As for my own part, I must say, that I was very virtuously inclined, as any young fellow could well be; I had never in my life, to my knowledge, sat a quarter of an hour in a public house, or even went near one for the sake of the liquor, or any other ways, than just to quench my thirst and return; my greatest delight centering, in bestowing my whole surplus time, in studying the powers and operations of mechanism, or in devising or practising upon some mechanical contrivance or other; and I had by me divers little models of great curiosity.

The above exercises being my chief employment after work time, and my father being, as I said before, constantly abroad till ten o’clock, my new mother-in-law spent most part of his absence with me, and was daily so lavish in her commendations of my ingenuity and sobriety, till at length, no two could be more familiar, or better pleased with each other’s company than we were; and oh! if my father had but been of my temper, and had loved home as well as myself, how happy, she would say, they might have been! but for a husband, whose business kept him from her all day, never to spend an hour with her till bed-time, made her life sit very heavy and uneasy to her.

It is unaccountable, how by frequent converse, the different sexes insinuate into each other’s good opinion; from whence proceeds a liking, which cannot long endure till it becomes productive of love; for at my mother-in-law’s first marriage, I almost hated but to think of her, and yet by her affability and engaging behaviour, in six months time, she had so bewitched my affections, that I had almost brought myself to the temper of cuckolding my own father. In short, she had proceeded so far as to offer herself to my embraces.

Her person was so far from being disagreeable, that it was really amiable; and had she not been my father’s wife, I would willingly have made her my own; but I could, not condescend so far to her bewitcheries, as to commit an unbecoming act against so kind a parent: This she perceiving, as we were alone one night, expressed her inclination to me, in stronger terms than at any time before; and having from my answer suspected her disappointment, under pretence of falling into a fit, and of being on that account excusable for whatever might be the consequence, she threw herself into such an indecent posture, as I shall take no other notice of here, than to assure my reader, it caused me immediately to step out of the room, and call the maid to take care of her; but I had no sooner done it, than she started up, composed herself, and meeting her half way, told her, she did not now want her.

This plain artifice, added to what had passed before between us, put it out of all doubt, how far she would have proceeded, and gave me the utmost disquiet, both on my father’s account and my own; nay, it even drove me from home at all such times as my father was not there, which excited in me a relish for drinking.

My head was never free from the thoughts of what might at some unguarded hour happen, from her attempts; especially, as I was but too sensible, that I had not the least dislike to her person, and was only obstructed by a dint of reason from accomplishing her desires; and then, how long my reason might continue the mastery of inclination, it was difficult to say, and dangerous to trust to.

I had almost determined to inform my father of it; but how to prove my assertion would be hazardous: If he would believe me, says I, he is undone for his life; if he would discredit me, there are so many ways to enforce her innocence, against my single attestation of the fact, that I may greatly lessen my father’s esteem for me, without opening his own eyes, as to her perfidy.

What must be done? I could not long continue in my then present situation; for home, and that of an evening, as I said (which was ever the time and place I took most delight in) was now become irksome to me, and my rest on night was broke in upon, by the concern I suffered each day, as my affairs were then circumstanced.

Whilst these cogitations engrossed almost my whole time, my father going to London one day, to pay for some, and to bespeak other goods, I took, care to dine abroad; and so soon as shop was shut in the evening, I went to the alehouse, where I stayed till eleven o’clock at night, hoping that my mother-in-law would be in bed before I came home; and upon enquiry, the maid told me, she was so. That news settling my doubts, I retired also to bed, very much composed; condemning myself for my suspicions of her, who I now imagined had laid aside all further thoughts of me, or else she would not have escaped so fair an opportunity of gratifying herself, as my having drank so late, might have been supposed to furnish her with; but I had not been long asleep, before I was disturbed by an hand and arm, which I felt lying cross my body. My surprize at this unexpected appearance encreased proportionably, as my wakefulness returned upon me; at last, demanding, Who was there? I was answered only by a squeeze with the arm that enclasped me; nor could I get any further satisfaction, till turning about, Who are you? says I. My mother-in-law, (for I soon found who was my bedfellow) replied, Can you be at a loss, dear Jacky, to know who it is in all the world that dies for you? At saying this, me taking my right hand in her left, and pressing it to her bosom: Mother, says I, (taking hold of her wedding ring) methinks you would have otherwise disposed of this, and not have brought it hither as a memento to me, how I ought to behave in this case; for can you imagine, that whilst I am in possession of that token, which in the presence of the Almighty has appropriated you by solemn vows to my father, I can be so abandoned, as to interpose to the breach of that union you have engaged to each other, both of persons and affections? No, had you been at your own disposal, I have often reflected on the satisfaction I could have received from your love; but be assured, no gratification of my own desires shall ever urge me to so atrocious a crime, as you seem inclinable to perpetrate with me.

I was then proceeding to reason with her upon the horridness of the fact, and of what we must necessarily think of each other, if ever our merciful Creator would suffer us to enjoy the light again after the commission of such a crime; when perceiving her silent, restless, and feeling about the bolster for somewhat; I had but just time to seize her hand, and thereby gain intelligence of the cause, as she was going to plunge a dagger in my breast; but having her fast, with her right hand in my left, I with my right forced the instrument from her, and at the same time, could scarce restrain myself from sheathing it in her bowels.

I immediately flung myself out of bed, determined to endure such company no longer; and it being a little moon-light, made a shift to dress myself; for I had first run to my own door, locked it, and had taken out the key, that me might not escape down before me, where, perhaps, she might have hatched some plot to have dispossessed me of my life; I then represented her own wicked actions in the most shocking light I could expose them, and told her, that but for the regard I had for my father, and lest I would destroy his future peace, I would certainly declare her whole conduct to him; but, says I, that so much villainy may not pass wholly unobserved, I am determined to double-lock you in here into my room, from whence I am assured you cannot get forth, without exposing the design of your vile prostitution.

She heard all my charges against her virtue and honour with seeming unconcern, so long as she thought they might yet lie concealed; but she no sooner perceived that I meant to expose her, than she fell into tears; then leaping from the bed, and falling at my feet, implored me, by all the strongest tyes in nature, not to lock her in, to make her the scorn and contempt of her own servant, who I was sensible must be the person to release her; insisting, that as what she had done, was only through an irresistible passion for me, which she was not able to controul, it would be the height of barbarity in me to expose her for it; and at the same time declared, with most bitter imprecations, that if I persisted in it, she would be her own executioner before morning, by some means or other, rather than live to be a publick ridicule.

Her last argument, I must confess, had the greatest weight with me; for I now became cool enough to consider, that should I by locking her in, occasion her, through despair, to commit any rash deed upon her life, as I would not be found, for I was determined to quit the country; whatever would happen to her, would be imputed to my act, and that perhaps, I might in ruining her reputation, bring my own life into danger. However, I seemed to give little heed to her entreaties, persisting in disgracing her at least; till observing her most extravagant in her request for secrecy, I told her, that if she would solemnly swear, that she never would attempt to entrap any other person in like manner as she had me, or on any account be false to my father’s bed, I would keep all that had passed an inviolable secret; and at the same time assuring her, that I had determined to withdraw myself, both from her sight and knowledge, that I might lay her under no further temptations; she fell into the utmost fury: And will you go? Will you leave us? said she. Then what occasion for oaths to bind me? I despise the whole species where you are not to be found, nor can I say, I will not love you; but I will swear, to restrain my passion for you to the narrowest limits possible.

Finding all that I could say would be to little purpose, and wanting to be gone, that I might prosecute my journey to some considerable distance before day-light. I opened my trunk, took out all my money, amounting to about eighteen pounds, my linen, and some few other things, and tying them up in an old frock, I bid her adieu for ever; begging her, that as she had turned me out of doors a vagabond, she would mend her life, and suffer all her thoughts of love to center in my father.

She run after me to the chamber door, begging me on her knees, if I had the least regard for her, or could compassionate a distracted wretch, that I would only kiss and forgive her before I went: Upon her pressing her demand so movingly, I told her I would, bidding her rise and compose herself; but offering to salute her, she caught me round the neck; vowing she would never more disjoin her arms, till I had sworn to inform her in what part of the earth I should settle.

She clung so close to me, and seemed so resolved, that I was compelled to threaten her destruction, by the dagger I then held in my hand; the terror of which, I was in hopes would have made her desist: But instead of shewing the least fear, me assured me, her only ambition was to fall by my hand, and even begged it of me as a favour. However, after some struggle, I sprang from her, and ran violently down the stairs, left the dagger in the shop, and departed.


Arrives at Norwich. Goes journeyman. Is terrified at an advertisement, with a reward for apprehending him. Flies to Yarmouth. Enters on shipboard for the Streights.

THE hurry of my spirits, and confusion of my thoughts, upon quitting my father’s house by night, as a malefactor, and in his absence too, had taken such possession of me, that I moved on, not knowing or considering where I went, till on the approach of day-light, I perceived I was got into the New-market road; and having as yet formed no other design, but of transporting myself out of my mother’s knowledge, I, still pressed forwards: But had I not only debauched my mother, but murdered my father, it is impossible I could have been seized with more horrors, than at present surrounded me, from a reflection on the past scene. I wept in compassion to the poor old man, who I was assured would be inconsolable for the loss of me; not only from the love he had ever borne to me, but for the disappointment of his business, and for want of knowing what was become of me.

I had a great mind, and had almost come to a resolution of writing to my father, and stating the whole occasion of my disquiet and departure to him; but then, it occured to me, that numberless inconveniencies might arise from thence; as probably a separation from my mother, a recal of me, and possibly some mischief from her to him, in order to make her way to me the clearer from all obstacle; for I was convinced, that whilst the least possibility of engaging me remained, she would stick at no villainy or desperate measures whatsoever to obtain her ends. I therefore proceeded on my journey, and in a few days reached the city of Norwich.

I came in after dusk, on a Saturday evening, and took my stand at a little publick house, where I obtained a lodging; and the next day being Sunday, I went to church, and having surveyed the city, returned home to dinner.

The evening being wet, I did not stir out, and the rain occasioned a great concourse of persons at my quarters, of different denominations, who being mostly tradesmen or labourers, it is easy to imagine what topics their discourse chiefly turned upon; for in such companies they are for the most part very communicative of the several particulars of their respective professions.

I being a stranger to them, held but little share of the conversation, till a watch-maker, as I afterwards heard he was, starting somewhat of wheel work, was answered by a smith, who opposed the position laid down by the measurer of time; upon, which, some words arising, as to the powers of springs, levers, and weights, the debate growing warm, was referred to the company; but very few were able to give any true guess at the force of the question, save a mill-wright and a carpenter, who took different sides; at length, perceiving they were not likely to come to a determination, I begged leave, though a stranger, to offer my opinion upon the state of the case; which they readily granting, I set them right in the point; for being neither of them connoisseurs in the mystery they framed their argument from, they wanted terms significantly, to make each intelligible to the other, which I supplying them with from my reading, and giving them proper definitions of the operation of the engines they were discoursing of, I brought them to an agreement.

I happening to give the company great satisfaction by the principles I had laid down, it was presently asked, what profession I was of? To which, I replying, that I was bred a house-smith, and that I had travelled this way meerly for employment; one of the disputants told me he was of the same profession, and as I seemed by my discourse, to be a master of my business, if I wanted work he would employ me: I thanked him for his good opinion of me, and the next morning, by his appointment, entered into his service.

I continued to work with him for a fortnight, that is, till the Saturday seven nights after I had been hired, and had received four and twenty shillings for my two weeks pay. The next day being Sunday, my master, who was at the tavern, taking orders for some work of a very peculiar nature, sent for me to receive instructions from the customer’s own mouth, intending to employ me about it. I was asked several questions, and gave my opinion upon them very much to their satisfaction; and whilst they were further discoursing, I took up the news-paper, which then lay upon the table; but I had no sooner cast my eyes thereon, than I perceived an advertisement, describing myself, with a reward of ten pounds, for any one who would apprehend and secure me and send word to my father; and at the bottom it was said, that if I would return to him, I should be very favourably received. This sight struck me on an heap, being so plain a description of my person, that no one who had ever seen me, but must be sure, (to my thinking) who was meant by it.

I read it over again, and it hinting, that I had deserted my father’s service, and robbed him of money and several other things, all which I being conscious to myself was absolutely false; it directly came into my mind, that my mother-in-law must have been the thief, and that it was through her persuasions, and from her remonstrances to my father, that he had been induced to advertise me thus; and what confirmed my suspicion that it must be her own doings, and that me still wanted to have me near her again, was the notice of being favourably received, if I returned.

I had no sooner made myself master of this piece of intelligence, than I left the tavern, and began seriously to contemplate upon my unhappy circumstances. I formed several successive schemes to act upon, the last of which I still apprehended to be the best; but neither of them counseling my return, and dreading to be apprehended, pursuant to the advertisement, whereby I might subject myself to the malice of an enraged and disappointed woman, who I doubted not would pursue me to death, rather than continue subject to my flights: I concluded upon quitting England, and settling in some foreign country, where I might at least lead my life void of the danger I now found myself exposed: to; for I was master sufficient of my business, to obtain a handsome provision from it on any land in Christendom. All that gave me now the most concern was that my books were still at my father’s, which I had no way left of recovering.

I had not the patience to wait till the next day, lest I should be taken into custody; and though I had been guilty of no one ill act, yet the very apprehension of being sought after, and liable to be stopped, gave me a suspicion, that every man I met would secure me; so returning to my lodging, I paid my landlord about two shillings that I owed him, and packing up my things in the evening, I told him, I had taken a private lodging, and, should leave his house; letting him know that if any one wanted me, he might receive their messages, and that I should call in daily and drink with him as usual.

I was so fearful of being seen in the, streets, getting out of the city, that the next turning to my lodgings leading down to the water side, I went thither, and pretending urgent business that required me, I agreed with a boatman for my passage to Claxton ferry, intending from thence to walk to Yarmouth, as the readiest sea-port to transport myself at.

The tide was now upon the ebb, and we had not got many miles down the river Yare, before we overtook a barge laden with corn for Yarmouth; when quitting my boat, I agreed for my passage on board of her, and arrived safe there the next tide.

I no sooner landed, than I went to the Quay, and offered myself to go on board any ship that was ready to sail; but there being more hands already there than could get births, and I not coming under the rank of a sailor, soon became satisfied, that there was no way for me to get from shore, but either by working, or paying for my passage; there being no expectation of my receiving any thing for my labour.

Amongst the rest that I had applied to, there were two captains both just ready to sail for the Streights, and I had offered to work my passage to Leghorn, Naples, or Genoa; but could get no determinate answer from either of them. One of them indeed ordered me to call on him the next morning, at a public house near the Quay, when he would give me a final answer: I did so, and whilst we were discoursing, in comes the other captain, who was going with him, and hearing us argue about my passage, sat him down, and took up the news to read.

It happened to be the same I had seen, or some other that had my father’s advertisement in it; and after he had read some time, here’s a young dog, says he, has robbed his father, a smith at Royston; a villain, says he, to rob his father; our gallows groans for such young scoundrels. I had no sooner heard his words, but, (had I not been bowing to the captain, with whom I had agreed, and was turning out of the room) I must have discovered myself to them; for my legs would scarce bear me clear of the door-way, and if I might have had the world for the trouble of conveying myself cross the street, I could not have earned it, but was obliged to squat down upon a bench in the passage just without the room; nor could I then sustain my body upright, but was compelled to fall along on the bench.

The landlord seeing me in this condition, and look as white as ashes, asked me if I was ill, but I could not speak; till giving me first a glass of cold water, and as I recovered a little a dram of brandy upon it, I made a shift to tell him, that I was taken with such a sickness at my stomach, that I verily thought I had been dying. Happy it was for me, that my two captains within the room heard nothing of the stir; so I paid for my dram, and went directly on board my ship, not daring to be seen any longer on shore.


Arrives at Leghorn, touches at the Canaries in his return. Enters with a Dutch captain for China. Is cast away. Gets to land with one Thomas. In great distress for food and water. Go in search of them; but in vain. Find water. Terrified at a wild boar. Are in great distress for food. Hope of meeting inhabitants. Combat a wild bull. Kill him. Eat of him before dead. Lodge in a tree.

WE set sail the next morning, and in due time arrived with our cargoe at Leghorn, where I got leave once or twice to go on shore; for my view was to observe if it would be worth my while to settle there; but I found the town so flocked with English manufactures of all sorts in my way, at so much a cheaper price than I could possibly make them at, that I soon dropt all thoughts of an establishment in that country, and resolved to return on board my ship for England again; hoping that the remembrance of my description would be quite worn out by that time.

Captain Marriot, for that was my captain’s name, was to touch at the Canaries before he returned home, and accordingly we arrived there, where we stayed some time to take in a lading of wines, with which we were to proceed to England. During our stay, there arrived a Dutch vessel, bound for China in the East-Indies, the master of whom was very diligent in picking up sailors, having lost several in his voyage. I no sooner had notice thereof, but I told captain Marriot, that as I received no pay, I hoped he would please to dismiss me, acquainting him with the opportunity I now had of seeing the East Indies, for which I had always had a great desire; and that I did not doubt, but the Dutchman would enter me upon immediate pay. I confess I was dubious whether the captain would have complied with me or not, and believe, that had we been outward bound he would not; but however he made but little opposition, and seeing me so earnestly bent upon going, he discharged me.

I immediately entered myself with the Dutch skipper upon full pay, he making no further enquiries after my abilities as a sailor, and setting sail, we had a very prosperous voyage, till we came near the Malaccas, when a storm arising at northeast, it blew such a hurricane, that our shrouds were almost torn away; we were at last obliged to cut down our masts, and leave ourselves to the mercy of the waves, and had we not had a very sound ship under us, we could not have stood it an hour in the violence of the weather that lay on us.

This storm continued with very little intermission for seventeen days, during which time the sea had been over us forty times, and we were half full of water, being obliged to throw out great part of the lading to lighten the ship, and to keep hands constantly at the pump,

We had thirty-two hands on board, but with labour and watching, we were so reduced in our strengths, that we could scarce crawl about the deck; and what was now worst of all, we found but little mitigation of the storm. On the eighteenth morning, the man at the steerage called out, he saw land; this, though it rejoiced us all, seemed to be but comfortless news at last, when we heard it lay full to leeward of us, for having no command of the vessel, we could expect little less than to be dashed to pieces against the rocks or shoals the shore might abound with.

The captain having observed the land, could not conceive what it was called; but on coming nearer, we plainly perceived it to be a flat shore, and somewhat mountainous above it; we longed for night to take some observation, but it was too cloudy, and we were before the close of day got within two leagues of it: As the wind still continued very high, and our rudder answered but very little, having no sail, we gave ourselves up for lost before morning; and about the middle of the night, we felt such a thump against the head of the vessel, as threw us all flat. Our consternation was not over, when we felt ourselves rise up suddenly, and by the subsiding of the wave which then bore us, we were again let down with such a force, as left the ship immoveable, and broke great part of the head through; the waves washed us over and over with such violence, that many of the men were forced away with them, nor could any moveable upon deck resist their fury.

Myself and one or two more had lashed ourselves to a stump of one of the masts, and held the end of the cord in our hands, in which posture we resisted the wash of two or three terrible waves that broke over us, though we were cruelly beaten and bruised by the impetuous force of the water against us.

When we recovered a little, we could not see a soul on board but ourselves, and the water was up full chuck to the head of the hatchway; so that we did not doubt, but that everyone had perished but ourselves: And whilst we were bemoaning our conditions and waiting our fate, we heard something dash violently into the water behind us; upon which, Caleb Rogers, one of us, ran to see what it was, and calling to us, said, it was the mainmast, which had hung by the ropes to the side of the vessel when it was washed over; he advised us, whilst it was within reach, to commit ourselves to it, and not stay till the ship bulged and we perished there. This invitation rousing us, Peter, Thomas and I, unlashed ourselves and ran to him. The mast still hung at the top by a small cord, which kept it from parting from the ship, and Rogers asked, if either of us had an instrument or knife to cut it afloat with, which each of us having, we all three leaped upon the mast, and disjoining it from the vessel, delivered up ourselves to the mercy of the wind and waves.

We clung to the mast till we were within half a mile of the land; but the billows broke so high over us, that we were immersed frequently for near a minute wholly in water, before we rose through them again; the repetition of which so spent and wasted our strength and spirits, that we had scarce power to keep our holds to the mast,

We were now within twenty yards of the shore, and at times could touch it with our feet, when Rogers, impatient of his situation, and fearing, that the mast would strike against his legs and break them, if any wave would drive it on with violence, got off, at about middle deep, and strove for the shore on his legs; but a prodigious surge pursuing him, raised up the mast with us upon it, and letting us furiously down upon the sand, almost beat the breath out of our bodies; (for we drew up our legs and lay flat upon it). This shock, we presume, beat down poor Rogers, and the return of the breaker carried him back to the sea, for we never saw him more. By the time we had recovered the shock we had received, the water returning, left the mast aground, which we no sooner saw, than starting up, we ran to land for our lives: Though one single breaker more overtaking us, when it was almost spent, it threw us down indeed, but we were cast too forward to be returned with it, and before another could come up to us, we were out of their reach.

When we had got out of danger of the water, we were amazed to reflect, how it was possible, amidst the contention of the waves, which laboured in our view like mountains, for us two poor creatures to escape upon our mast, which was of less force and significance amongst them, than a small twig would be on a raging inland river.

We thanked God for our lives, and walked up to the shore rising ground; by which time the sun was near setting, (for it had shone a little this afternoon) we wrung each other’s cloaths as dry as possibly we could, and having no change, we were forced to retain our wet ones, but we took the precaution to keep stirring, for fear of chilling our limbs; though after our fatigue, rest would have been of great refreshment to us: At length, it growing very dark, we were forced to lay us down amongst some shrubs and bushes that grew there, to shelter us from the inclemency of the wind, which still raged at a great rate.

We had not lain long, but Thomas, to my thinking, making a great bustle, for I could not see what he was at, I asked him, what he was doing? When he told me, that his shirt clinging most uncomfortably to his body, he had stripped himself, to let it dry in the wind. This induced me, who suffered the like inconvenience, to follow his example; so slipping on our jackets, we hung our breeches, waistcoats, and shirts to dry, which the wind soon perfected; and then slipping them on, we dried our jackets; and tho’ it took us up some time, yet it fully recompensed us, by the satisfaction with which we afterwards lay down to compose ourselves, and I believe it contributed very much to the sweetness of our sleep, which lasted till the sun was a good height the next morning.

We waked very reasonably refreshed, when being more easy in our minds, and our vigour being somewhat recruited, we returned thanks for the blessed refreshment we had received, and turned our further thoughts to the discovery of some means whereby we might, after so miraculous a preservation, still continue ourselves in being. We looked wistfully towards our ship, of which we could only now and then see something blackish, when the sinking of the water on that spot discovered it; and being both very hungry, we agreed that no time was to be lost, in seeking somewhat to satisfy that demand: But whether the land or the shore would be properest to direct our steps to first was a doubt.

We saw at about half a mile distance from us, the skirts of some large woods, which seeming to rise higher, the further they went from us, gave us hopes of discovering some eatable fruits there; but then, we knew not by what men or beasts they might be inhabited, and possibly in seeking life there, we might meet with death; but our occasions growing too urgent to be trifled with, we postponed all dismal prospects, to the hopes of accomplishing our desires, and having no baggage to carry, we were prepared as quick as thought for our march.

It was a flattish country we had to pass, interspersed with shrubs, several whereof were in flower, and smelt deliciously; we picked some of them as we went along, and chewing them, brought a refreshing moisture into our mouths, which was very pleasing to us. We saw several small creatures like weazels as near as we could guess, but could not come nigh enough, to any of them, to discover their just make and proportion; and at length, just before we came to the entrance of the woods, we saw several yellow berries, that grew on a sort of a shrub we had not before observed, tho’ we were fearful of tasting of them, in hopes of finding somewhat more to our purpose amongst the great trees, but all our search was in vain, for there was neither fruit, nut, or berry to be seen; and by the number of blossoms we met with, we judged it to be an improper time of the year to expect any, and this gave us a particular air of melancholy; for having passed through this wood, in the search of which we had spent many hours, we were at length obliged to take up with the tenderest branches of the trees for our support, and then sitting down on the further side of it to rest ourselves, we began to lament our want of water also, having seen not the least sign of any in all our walk.

From the verge of the wood we had thus passed, we saw another large one not a quarter of a mile from us, with a sharp valley between, very much over-run with bushes, insomuch, that we feared it would be difficult to pass it; but still by the situation of it, we were in hopes of water in the lower parts, and so indeed it happened; but we had a hard task to get at it, for the bushes that grew thicker the nearer we approached to it, almost tore us to pieces in our passage.

This valley reached both ways as far as we could see, and was very full of shrubs, bushes, and low trees; when we arrived at the bottom, we found a fine rill of water, very clear and sweet, but the brambles and thorns had so intertwined each other on the banks, that we were near an hour clearing a way with our knives to come at it.

Our next difficulty was, how to get over it, for we resolved to search the wood on the other side, if possible, in hopes still of finding something eatable; but the banks were exceeding steep, and though the cut itself was not above ten or twelve yards wide, yet it being very much clogged with twigs and thorns, which the current had brought forward, and lodged amongst the branches, that shot cross from one side almost to the other of it, we were apprehensive of a dangerous passage, especially as we were unacquainted with the depth of the water; but in order to fathom it, we cut each of us a strong, strait shoot from some of the trees, about twelve foot long, by the help of which, we made experiments to find out the most fordable places; and at length, having with much ado, forced our way through all opposition, at about one hundred yards above us, we came to a seeming ford, where we could visibly discern, on the opposite shore, the traces and footsteps of beasts, and by the number of them, and their seeming freshness, were satisfied, that it must be a common entrance for the wild inhabitants of the country; this put us upon our guard for fear of a surprise, having as yet seen nothing that had conveyed the least idea of danger to us. We crossed this common ford, at little above our knees in water, and being arrived on the other shore, held a counsel, what was best to be done, in case of any violence from, the wild creatures, which we were now too sensible the neighbouring woods must abound with. We had no other weapon, either of offence or defence than our long poles, which amongst the trees would be unmanageable; and then, should we be assaulted, they being so long and cumbersome, we could expect but to give our adversary one blow, before he would be upon us; at length we agreed to sharpen our poles at one end, very taper, that they might serve us to push, as well as to strike with, which having done, and cut off about three foot from the length of each, we set forward to the wood, looking very circumspectly every way, and listening at the least noise we heard.

We were not many paces from the wood, labouring through a thicket, when we heard a violent snort, which to our terrified apprehensions sounded as loud as a cannon, not many poles from us; this made us flop as dead as a pointer on winding his game, but after listening for some minutes, without making the least stir, and finding every thing about us quiet, our fears subsiding a little, we gently stepped forward again; but being forced to push ourselves through the branches and bushes that obstructed our way, we could not stir a foot without making a great rustling. The soft noise we made, produced a second snort, to our thinking more dreadful than the first; this fixed us trembling to the spot like images; but again, all being hush’d, we whispered very softly to each other, that it would be to no purpose to stand there enclosed in the underwood, which would render our arms useless, if we should be attacked, and give us up at once a prey to our assailant; and then came to a resolution, that as the wood was so very near us, where we plainly saw we should have more room to put ourselves upon the defensive, we would at all hazards make a bold push to it, in spite of every opposition. With this resolution, we sprang forward, struggling with all our might, till we came through the thicket to the wood, which we instantly gained: But from the moment we began to stir, our hairs stood an end on our heads, and our blood ran thro’ us as cold as water, at hearing not only another snort, but such a terrible hoarse grumbling, that we expected nothing less than some monstrous lion to oppose us in the wood; we instantly drew up upon our guard, facing the quarter from whence the sound came, where we beheld a prodigious wild boar, rushing through the trees, about twenty paces below us, making the wood echo with his grunting; but we standing quite still, with our sticks pointing towards him, he trotted off at a great rate through the cover, without turning to attack us.

We stood quite still, till he was gone put of sight, but could hear him much further than we could see him; nor could we collect our full spirits again for some time after, not doubting, but we would be forced to encounter several of the same kind, if we were obliged to traverse the woods for food. We searched very narrowly on every tree, but could see nothing like fruit thereon, or any thing to satisfy the demands of nature, the want of which supply, began to cause a great faintness in our bodies.

What could we do in this dilemma? Die we must a lingering death, if we could find nothing, and nothing could be found without search; neither was it at all more dangerous to meet wild beasts in our travels, than to wait them where we were, who would as certainly range to the places we would be in, as elsewhere: So that having death on the one hand certain, if we were idle, with a chance of a supply, as a reward for our diligence, on the other hand, if we were active, we brushed on, referring ourselves to providence for protection,

It must be allowed to be a melancholy situation that we were in, when we had spent the whole day to no manner of purpose, as to the main view of our travel; and not only so, but we were now so far withdrawn from the rivulet, that even that comfort was out of all prospect of being attained till the next day: Thomas declared himself to be so far spent about sunset, that he wished with all his heart, he had been torn to pieces by the boar, rather than to suffer the rack of his present hopeless condition; and indeed, though I almost thought that we should have met with a happy deliverance, if the boar had destroyed us both, yet I endeavoured to keep up the spirits of my companion, in the best manner I could, being ascertained, that despair would bring us no relief.

We were now both sitting among the trees, when I desired Thomas to rise, and to let us try to get through the wood before dark night, or at least to search out some large tree, wherein we might shelter us till morning; but he seemed so dejected, that he seriously told me, he thought me to blame for attempting to go any further; for he said, what did another day of life signify to either of us? And for his part, if he could but be so happy as to fall asleep where he was, till some messenger of death should dispatch him, he should think it preferable, even to an age of life, to be led in the misery that then presented to us in that country, tho’ we should meet with food sufficient for us; for consider, says he, we are excluded all human converse, must live in perpetual terror of the creatures about us, or if we should in our travels meet with any of the human species, we shall either become a prey to their necessities, or be reduced to be their slaves; now is it not better not to be at all, than be thus miserable?

He had scarce ended his harangue, which I must confess, I was so far from concluding to be void of all reason, that I was at a loss how regularly to contradict it, when not far from us we heard the lowing of some cow or bull, as we thought; then hearing it again, come Thomas, says I, cheer up lad, we are nearer company than we thought for, here are inhabitants at hand, don’t you hear their cattle? He told me he imagined he did; I own, says he, if I thought there were any civilized people near us, I could shake off my melancholy, and be glad to meet them, notwithstanding what has passed, then rising, we both directed our steps to the quarter the lowing came from; but had not passed far, before we perceived ourselves sorely disappointed in our expectations, for the first object that presented to us, was a prodigious fierce bull, whetting his horns against a large tree, bellowing and pawing with desperate fury.

The part of the wood we were then in, being very plain at bottom, and free from underwood, and consisting only of very large trees, standing at a tolerable distance from each other; we had but just time to regulate our conduct, which was, that we would dodge him behind the trees, and by no means quit our station, but keep the same stand we first occupied, before he espied us: Then setting his tail erect, and shaking his head very terribly, he made full at us, who by this time, had taken our stand behind two several large trees: The first that he made at was Thomas, lowering his head to gore him; when he slipping behind the tree, the creature, with all the violence and malice imaginable, pushed sometimes on this, and again on that side; but still as he changed his station, Thomas changed his, myself standing trembling for my companion, behind two large trunks, which had shot from one stem, and had left an open space between. I could very easily have climbed up one of the stems, and have secured myself in the branches, but did not know how soon there might be a necessity for my assisting my comrade, for it was not without the exactest judgement that he had avoided the creature so long as he had; but at length, the beast being almost mad to be disappointed of his aim, clapped his forehead against the tree, he seemed to strive with all his force to overturn it; this Thomas perceiving, he struck the sharp point of his pole quite into the creature’s eye. The anguish of the wound, enraged the bull ten times more if possible than before; and running backwards some paces, he reared up perpendicularly, bellowing, roaring, and pawing with his fore feet in the air; but in his return to the ground, having turned his body about in his agitation, he missed the sight of Thomas, and made directly at me; I standing and looking on between the two stems I have mentioned. On his approach, I retired behind one of the stems, but the beast, having seen me between them, made a leap to come through; when his horn happening on the blind side, to strike against the tree, and thereby stopping the force of his leap, he fell short between the two stems, which growing close toward the bottom, and opening wider the higher they rose, caught him fast in the cleft at the flank, so that he could neither draw his buttocks after him, or withdraw his fore part from it.

The rage of the brute at this accident was inexpressible, his fury even shook both the large trees from the foundation; but Thomas and I perceiving that all his struggles would be fruitless, and that he had already torn a large gash in his flank, and would rather have born the anguish of disjointing his hinder parts from the body, than have ceased from endeavouring his escape; we both came before him, in order to dispatch him, when observing what a benefit the loss of one eye had been to us, I directly ran my pole into the other; and then new sharpening and tapering our poles, one of us on the right, and the other on the left side, ran them into his body, just below the shoulder bone, which presently brought him to his knees, and killed him.

The fall of the beast gave us time to recruit our breath a little, and to recover from our fears: But I am almost ashamed to say, that the beast was scarce breathless, before we had each of us devoured a part of him, though our pressing necessities may be a reasonable excuse for us: For he had no sooner fallen upon his knees, unable to renew his former efforts, than our knives were in his haunches, cutting slices to appease our hunger; and though we had neither cook or seasoning, I have often called it to mind, as the most excellent dainty I ever tasted in my whole life.

After so seasonable and elegant a refreshment, we both began to consider our lives at a much greater price than we had just before esteemed them at, and that the preservation of them was worth our future concern; wherefore we came to a resolution, of lodging on the crown of some of the trees thereabouts, (where were several of them overgrown with a creeping plant, not unlike our ivy in nature, though different in leaf,) and were not long finding one of capacity to contain us both, upon this we mounted with each other’s help; the body of it, though not very high, was yet of too enormous a bulk for us to grasp or swarm up; so that I mounting up on Thomas’s back, and thereby reaching the branches, clambered up myself first, and then extending my arm to him, I drew him up to me.

The crown of the tree could be no less than five foot diameter, and was pretty near circular, covered over with a fine dry mould, which had been formed in length of time from the decayed leaves which had lodged there, and over that were innumerable fine tender shoots of the running plant, as full of leaves as possible, so that we lay as comfortable as on a down bed; and having both agreed to acquiesce in the absence of water till morning, we fell into a sound and delightful sleep.


Awaked by a herd of wild swine. Almost devoured with flies. Project of catching swine in a pit. Work hard at it. Catch a boar and pig. Kill the boar. Get fire to dress it.

AS we lay in the most serene composure that can be imagined, we were both awaked with a violent uproar of numberless, hoarse, inarticulate voices and sounds, which made the very wood ring; when flatting up on our backsides, by the light of the moon, which then glimmered through the trees, and checquered the ground beneath us, we could discern a whole herd of swine, making a delicious meal upon our leavings, and all in full concert; besides several other animals, whole shapes and sizes, though we could not nicely distinguish, yet we saw sufficient to assure us, that they were not of the swine kind. This musick lasted till day break, when they severally dispersed themselves, but most of them took their course still further into the wood, and very few towards the side we had entered at.

Even this piece of intelligence, trifling as it may seem to the reader, was of the utmost consequence to us, whose lives depended upon the measures we pursued so soon as the coast was clear, and it was full day-light, we dislodged from our retreat and gained the ground again, when, our first step was, to see what the voracious company had left us; and indeed they had lost no time, for the head, shoulders, body and entrails were clean gone, and the bones picked like a prepared skeleton, as were also the hinder legs, as far as they could reach, but the back part of the creature rising very high, for the feet would not reach the ground, I may say, they had left best part of the two sir-loins, and the broad part of the rumps; so that we had no great reason to complain, being in possession of more than we could possibly consume, while the weather, which was very hot, would suffer us to preserve it from putrefaction; we therefore wished them well with their meal, and cutting out the remaining flesh from the bone as well as we could, we packed it up, and marched away with it to the rivulet, which we had crossed the morning before; but sure there never was such a journey, for the sun being very warm, we were pestered with such swarms of flies, and those of such enormous sorts and sizes, drawn together by the scent of the beef, that we could not see before us: If we attempted but to speak, we had them in our mouths; they settled by whole handfuls on our faces and hands, and made such a charm, that we could not hear each other. This inconvenience, and lest they would fill our meat with maggots, obliged us to take our handkerchiefs from our necks, and tie the meat up in them; but in spite of all we could do, they swarmed so over us, that we had much ado to reach the rivulet; nor could we then discharge our bundles from them, but by dipping them in the water, in which we also soaked our hands, and wetted our faces, to alleviate the smart they had occasioned.

When we had drank and passed the rivulet, the flies beginning their old trade again, grew so intollerable, that we were not able to proceed further without some remedy; so there being great quantities of very long knot grass, about the verges of the bushes, we plucked up a large parcel of it, and putting it under our hats, let it hang over our faces and necks, and then wrapping our hands and bundles in the same, we proceeded with tolerable security; as for our legs, while we kept them in the bushes, they were safe enough.

Having found the benefit of this long grass, we enclosed all our meat in it, and placing it above the reach of any animal in a tree, we took each a slice in our pockets, and returned to our second wood, intending to spend the ensuing night there in our old lodging; but we never passed or repassed the rivulet without drinking, whether we were thirsty or not. Now the reason why we removed our store to the first wood was, that the scent of it might not entice the bees to accustom themselves to our lodging place, and because we had not observed any creature whatsoever in the first wood; and it was plain, the beasts had never passed the rivulet; for though they had very much poached the side where they entered to drink, yet there not being a single mark on the opposite shore, it was reasonable to believe, they had not usually forded it.

On our return to the second wood, we both sat down near to the bones of the bull, and took a short repast, entering into discourse of our providential escape from, and the death of the creature, which had most certainly saved our lives; but then, considering with ourselves, that our stock of provision, were it much larger, would not keep above three or four days before it would almost poison us, we applied our thoughts to such means, as might, if possible, procure us a succession of victuals; otherwise, a little time must of course reduce us to starving.

Whilst we were on these reflections, Thomas taking up one of the bull’s shoulder bones, says he, if we could but contrive to fix this in a handle, it would not be impossible to dig with it; and if we could but make a pit, we might catch an hog at any time. How so, says I? Why, says he, I have read of catching beasts in pits, covered over with sticks and earth them; but I am afraid, says he, it won’t do. I had never heard of such a way before, but however, I soon perceived, by a little what a great deal meant; nay, said I, if it be but possible, we’ll try, having nothing else to do; and if it is to be done, the sooner the better.

We both seemed mighty alert to try our experiment, but did not conceive the labour it would be to compass it. We walked about first to find a spot proper for our purpose, at no very great distance from our lodging, that we might be the readier at hand to kill any taken beast before it would escape; and having pitched upon a place, we marked out the ground about six foot square; then cutting half a dozen large handspikes, about five foot long, we with an infinite labour sharpened them, having no other instrument but our knives, and this concluded our first day.

In the night we again heard our swine, but being more used to them, they now became only our diversion, and towards morning they marched off by the same route they had taken the day before. We were early at our work to day, resolving to make a good beginning before dinner; and having sharpened all our handspikes the last night, we began to drive them in by repeated blows with our own force only; but the ground was so hard we could make nothing of it, till cutting them about a foot long each; with the great thigh bones of the bull, we could drive them in, and loosen the surface of the ground very much: This work we pursued with great assiduity, so soon as we found it would do, shoveling out the crumbles with the two blade bones, and then by our stakes loosening another layer of earth, we scooped that out in the same manner; so that by noon we had got it about six inches deep, and then we crossed the rivulet to dinner, which taking us up about two hours, we wrought at it again till bed time.

The next night we slept pretty quiet, there being but few swine near us, and they staying but a little while, their food being entirely consumed the night before. In the morning we went to work again, first new pointing our tools, and found we were likely to have a much easier day’s work than before; for having with some difficulty removed another layer, the ground worked much freer and easier, the deeper we went; so that we sunk it at least a foot that day. The next morning was spent in spreading our earth to a greater distance, and upon our return to dinner, we perceived the swine had smelt our beef, and had been after it, for we found a great deal of their dung under the tree, and many marks of their feet against the bark, and before we went to rest, our hole was about two foot and half deep.

We were obliged to work for life next day, for our beef was now grown so strong that we could scarce eat it; and arising betimes, we sunk our pit almost a foot and half. The fourth day we sunk it almost two feet, and the next day we cut our sticks to cross it with, and in our return from dinner, brought with us two bundles of long grass. This we scattered over the sticks lightly, to keep up the crumbles, and spread that over with a thin surface of earth, so that our pit was now about seven feet deep from the new raised mould, which we had cast out and spread round it; in the middle of this we stuck a pole, about four feet higher than the earth, and upon that pole our remaining beef; for we could now scarce endure the smell of it, and had tasted scarce any of it the two last days.

At dark we went to bed, as I call it, but had a very indifferent night of it; for long before morning we were surrounded with the roughest musick that ever was, nor can it be compared to any other noise; however, we rested, in strong assurance that day light would disperse our pipers, and pleased ourselves with the prospect of a good pork breakfast; but our disappointment was very great, when instead of the multitudes dispersing, their cries had collected treble the number there had been the night before; and though the sun had half mounted to the zenith, there appeared no more sign of the assembly’s breaking up, than there was before day break; nor was there any thing to be heard or seen, from every point of our view, but fresh company trotting, whining, and flapping their ears, to join the chorus.

Seeing no prospect of seizing our prey, not being able to guess when we would, we judged ourselves now to be in the very worst condition we had yet been in; for having drank nothing since the preceding noon, we were ready to perish with thirst; and to venture down, and expose ourselves to the fury of the clamorous rout beneath us, was to clap a razor to our own throats: Again, as the evening was now approaching, we had little hopes of their leaving us, till the next morning at least. But whilst we were cursing our wayward fortune, Thomas rising up, stretched himself, and at the same time giving a loud yawn, in an instant every ear was pricked up to hear from whence that unusual sound came, and some of them spying his uplifted arms, as he was returning them to his sides again; immediately one general snort issuing from the whole herd, each let up his tail, and ran for life, with such precipitation, some one way, some another, that in three minutes, there was neither a beast to be heard or seen through the whole wood,

We waited some time in expectation of their return, before we descended, and now hearing no noise in the pit, imagined that what we had taken must have escaped with the rest or it would not have been so silent. We took our long pointed poles in our hands, and each of us two shorter, and marched softly to the pit, where upon our approach we saw a swinging old boar, sitting on his breech, with his mouth all of a white foam, and so weary with leaping to get out, that he could not raise his hinder parts; and by him, with its head under the boar’s breech, a young shoot of about a quarter, or four months old, quite dead. The beast ground his teeth, and staring horribly at us, attempted to rise, but was unable, which we observing, struck the points of our long poles with all our force against his sides to dispatch him, but they made no more passage than if they had been forced against a stone wall; then taking up one of the sharpened handspikes, I with all my force swung it downwards to dart him, and this entering about his, flank, pinned him to the ground; then with the butt end of two others, Thomas and I so plyed him on the head, that we soon dispatched him; one of us then went down, and cut a quarter of the shoot off, with which we marched to the rivulet, for our thirst was too great to permit us to eat till we had allayed it; which having done, we made a hearty meal of it, threw the rest into the water, and returned to our lodging, not doubting but the run-away swine would return and annoy us in the night; but it happened quite otherwise, for we heard no more of them till our remaining pork stunk; and after that we never wanted provision for a great while.

Hearing nothing of the herd that night, we were very early at the pit in the morning, and took out the remainder of the shoot, which was as much as we could spend while it would be sweet; when having such plenty before us, and not being then very hungry, our palates grew nicer than they had before been; so that we bewailed ourselves very much for the want of fire, which if we could but have been able to procure, we thought we should have been compleatly happy; for that it might not only serve us for the purpose of dressing our victuals, but might be a means of driving any noxious beast from us. A supply for this want dwelt very much on our minds; when the sun being now excessive hot, I bethought myself of an old pair of spectacles, I had in my breeches pocket ever since I left Royston, and which I frequently wore at the finishing of any nice work. Thomas, says I, I have got fire in my pocket; so have I, says he, but we shall never make a blaze with it; thinking I meant my knife, with which he had often struck fire before, but not forcibly enough to catch on any thing we had applied it to. Yes, says I, you shall see I have, if you will give me a piece of your shirt. Make your words good, says he, you shall have it all, rather than sail; and upon assuring him I would, he cut off a piece about as big as a card. We then went to a little spot, where an opening of the trees let in the sun, and pulling out my spectacles, I set the rag on fire directly: Thomas ran and hugged me; O! Jack, says he, now we are happy. I immediately put it out again with my hand, till we were prepared with combustibles for raising a proper pile, which we both went in quest of, and could not be long to seek for in a wood; then heaping up some very dry small fluff and’ leaves, and disposing larger wood over it, we lighted the rag again, and soon produced what we thought we must for ever have wished for in vain. We had no sooner burnt our wood to embers, than broiling some of our pig, we made a most delicious meal of it, and were now, (thro’ our success) grown so dainty, that truly we thought it a difficulty to go, it may be, two furlongs every time for drink when we wanted it; this Thomas complaining of, I told him, he would consider, that though we were lords of the country, yet we had no subjects, and consequently should not think much of helping ourselves: Pox of subjects, says he, I want none; if I had but a good large bottle to: bring up my water in, it is all I desire. Well, lad, says I, come, as I have already procured you fire, I’ll endeavour to stand your friend in the water affair too, come along with me.


Make buckets of the boar’s skin. Make thread of the guts. Feed a year on hog meat. Take a progress. Are stopt by wild cattle. Find nuts, Ascend a mountain. Discover they are on an island. Know not what part of the world they are in. Set their pit trap. Catch a calf. Durst not come out of their tree for three days. Venture to their pit. Are frighted. Kill a cow. Take the calf. Reflections on the cow’s tenderness to her calf. Find salt.

IN all our operations, though I had observed my friend Thomas to be very slack of invention, yet no body could be more ready at the execution of any project I put him upon; and this himself perceiving, in every thing gave my judgment the preference; saying, come, if you think it will do, I’ll follow your directions; neither was this seeming subordination of opinion of the least disservice to our affairs; for by that means, there never arose the least disagreement between us, he being but as one of the hands, that were subservient to my head.

But to proceed, we went into the pit, when I ordered him to cut the boar in two just at the loins, and then we cut off one leg and thigh, and a vast one it was, even as much as we could both well lift at arms length, to the verge of the pit; we then lifted up the other also, and laid by it; we then ript up the body, and took out all the small guts, which I bidding Thomas lay carefully by themselves, he wondered, he said, what I was under such concern about them for, as he was sure we had ten times more good meat than we could eat, whilst it would keep sweet. Never mind, says I, you shall see the use of them hereafter. When we had properly disposed of the haunches, and guts, we cut the remainder into portable pieces, with great difficulty, and threw it out; then cleaning the bottom of the pit, left it open to sweeten.

The next thing we did, was to flay the skin off the hams, beginning at the largest end, and turning it down quite round as we proceeded, till we came to the hock, bone, and then we cut it off; so thus when we had stuffed and dried the skin, to its proper dimensions, by tying up the lower small end, we had a vessel which would contain and carry full two gallons of water without spilling.

Having served the other leg in the same manner, we bundled up the guts, and turning them, washed them heartily at the rivulet, then drawing them out at length, we began to twist them for drying, I intending them to supply the place of thread; but I found, upon my first experiment, that they would be too thick and stubborn for common uses; however, before it was quite dry, I tied up both the lower ends of my leather bottles, as I shall now call them, and making a handle to each, of the same materials, in about a week’s time, they were, by the heat of the country, as hard and strong as a bucket, and from that time we never wanted water, either for drinking, or any other necessary use, without the trouble of going upon every separate occasion to the rivulet.

The next creature we killed was a young sow, her we skinned entire, and then washing and cutting the guts into long strips, we twisted and dried them into a special cat gut thread, which was very useful.

Thus we went on for above a year, till we had a vast quantity of leather hanging all about the wood, besides abundance of utensils which we had made of it, and had soled our shoes frequently with it; for having observed a long prickly thorn, which was very hard, sharp, and tough when dry; we cut the shape of the soles out in the wet hides, and making our sewing holes in it, they were then ready for use, upon just opening the holes a little before we wrought them; and indeed, the soleing our shoes was of infinite comfort to us.

Having brought all our affairs into some regularity, we were very desirous of informing ourselves, whether there might never be a prospect of communicating with mankind again; and for that purpose, determined to travel to some distant parts of the country, for so long a space as the victuals and water we could carry with us would hold sweet; and it being now the coolest part of the year, we set out, in order to go through the wood we had lodged in, observing that course to lie inland from the sea. When we came to the further skirt of it, we beheld a beautiful savannah before us, with a great number of wild cows and bulls in it, which gave a sudden check to our progress: For about a mile on the other side of it, there rose another very tall wood, which though we wanted much to arrive at, yet we durst not venture cross the plain to come at it; and then, what further put a stop to us was, a broad water that run winding thro’ it, so far as we could see; but upon our nearer approach to the outward trees, we observed, that the wood we were in, and the other beyond the savannah, had a communication at the head of the savannah, about a quarter of a mile to our right; this gave us some hope; and moving that way through the trees, we encompassed the plain, and entered the wood on the other side, which we traversed in about two hours, and arrived at a vast opening, which extended some miles round, and was as full of bushes, shrubs, and thorns, as the first valley was. In the middle, or rather towards the eastern part of this opening, was a prodigious high and bare mountain, which seemed to run cross the whole plain; thither we inclined to pass, but the badness of the way, rendered it exceeding difficult and laborious to us.

We had found abundance of nuts, or mast, being only covered with a husk, somewhat larger than an acorn, in the further part of the wood, and the trees were covered with a sort of dove, or small pigeon, which we perceived were feeding upon them; the sight of which induced us freely to make the experiment ourselves, when we found them very palatable, but a little bitterish; they grew chiefly towards the tops of the branches, which were very lofty, where the tender shoots had the freedom of the air; but the birds had beaten so many of them down, that we were at no loss to find plenty, and this change of diet gave us no small pleasure. Having filled all our pockets with these, we set forward for the mountain, which in some places we were obliged to wind about a long way, before we could ascend, it lying so broken and steep; but at last we conquered it, and taking a prospect every way, we could observe the sea all round us, save the north, where we could not in our present situation overlook the further end of the mountain: However, about an hour’s walk more upon the ridge of it, brought us to that, where we plainly then perceived, that the land we inhabited was an island, which to our apprehensions might be about ten miles over, the way we came, and might be the transverse way, near as long again; and wherever there any large savannah, or plain, we were sure to see a river, or brook running along it.

The prospect we enjoyed upon this mountain, inviting our eyes longer than we had purposed to stay there, we could not possibly reach our old lodging by daylight, and therefore determined to lie that night upon the mountain; when having found a snug hollow, we both slept very agreeably, and being now over and above our store of flesh which we carried sewed up in a skin, supplied with so large a quantity of the nuts, we were not so sollicitous for returning, as we otherwise must have been; so that the next morning, passing down the northern end of the mountain, we arrived in an hour’s march to the sea shore.

Here we supplied ourselves with divers kinds of shell fish, which we roasted, and eat very greedily, they being a novelty to us, and surveyed several miles of the coast; but neither here or on the mountain, could behold any thing like land all round us, but the small spot we were upon, nor could we see any sign of a vessel, or give the least guess where we were; being neither of us supplied with sufficient seafaring observations.

Having spent two or three days upon the coast, and the fish growing less and less agreeable to us, (for we had thrown our pork into the sea, it stunk so) we resolved to return home, as we called it, and when we had ascended the mountain again, began to form a design of establishing there a place for a signal, in case we should happen to see any vessel passing by us; for we were now persuaded there were no inhabitants in the island, and could form no prospect of relief, but from what we might providentially observe, from the height of the mountain; so choosing an agreeable spot for the purpose, we resolved to return to it, when we had received a fresh supply, and to spend our time between that and our lodging, which were almost half a day’s journey from each other.

Upon our arrival, we covered our pit, in hopes of getting some more pork, tho’ we had nothing to bait our poles with, for all the flesh we had left behind us was quite gone, and even the bones removed; but we thought, that if the swine should prowl that way by accident, some one might be taken in our trap; for we never failed, when we had any stinking thing to draw them with. We then mounted on our tree, and went to sleep; but had not lain long, before we were roused by the violent bleating of a calf, which having attended to for some time, we heard a lowing of cattle, from all quarters of the woods quite round us, and soon after were gathered together the whole forces of the island, I believe; for by the moonlight, we could see an excessive number of them; they ran, they fought, they lowed, and bellowed with such hideous din, and clattering of their horns, that nothing could possibly have the appearance of greater horror; neither did they at all disperse upon the return of the light.

It is true, we were safe where we were, and what added to our comfort was, that we were in no want of provision, having filled all our pockets again, at our return from the mountain with nuts, and had yet water hanging by us in our skin bottles; but then the uncertainty of our deliverance from these turbulent and dangerous creatures gave us inexpressible disquiet. In short, they passed the next night and part of the second day in the same unruly exercises; so that we were forced to enter upon short allowance of water, and had come to a determination either to remove our lodging, if ever we escaped safe, further from our pit, or to provide a new pit further from our lodging; which latter seemed most likely; for in all our walks, we had observed no tree to compare with what we had selected.

In short, towards the second evening, they began to disperse a little, the calf by that time bleating very sparingly, and by dark there remained but very few of them, and they, all seemed upon their departure, except one cow, which we took to be the mother of the calf, for we were now sure it must be a calf that was trapped; because though we could not see, we could now and then hear it, and that much plainer since the dispersion of the multitude. However, as the cow still remained, we could not think of venturing down, even the third morning; not doubting but as she was the party concerned, her rage would not be restrained from attacking us.

It was now the third night that we had been in the tree, and hearing nothing of them when we awaked before day-light, we were in great hopes, that the cow being now gone, we should have the calf for our trouble; but on the approach of day, we saw the cow stretched along by the side of the pit, as we thought quite dead; this was joy indeed to us, and we made no more, words of it, but leaping from the tree, ran towards the pit, with our spike poles in our hands: But how terribly were we shocked in our march at the motion of one of the cow’s ears, which gave two or three brisk flaps; we stood like posts, neither daring to approach or fly; till stepping gently backwards a few paces, and not seeing her rise, we both turned tail, and ran furiously towards the water, hoping that if we could reach the bushes, we should avoid her. Our fright, and expecting her at our heels, had prevented our looking behind us, till we judged we were in a place of safety; and then listening for a good while, and perceiving nothing to stir, or make the least noise, we condemned each other for our causeless fear; though we could both have sworn, all the way we went, that we had heard her just behind us: Rejoicing to find things no worse, we stepped down to the rivulet, and drinking a hearty swig of water, returned to the wood; but with great caution and circumspection. We entered it now, lower to our left, and so came as it were beyond the pit, where we still saw the cow in her prior position; but knowing that she was not dead by our former experiment, we were afraid of venturing too near her; and then, having dropped our spike poles, when we ran away, we had no defence without them; neither could we come at them, but in the very sight of the beast.

These thoughts agitated us very much, and gave us a deep concern; but that we might act with caution, I told Thomas, that I would go round to the poles, and if the beast rose and made at me, I could but be in the case we were in at first with the bull, and I would try to gain my divided tree, where perhaps we might serve her as we had done him. Thomas said, if I went he would; so we both advanced, and possessed ourselves of the poles; when viewing the creature, and observing, that though she saw us, yet she did not raise her head, which then lay quite extended; I told Thomas I would go to her, for we could not always remain in this uncertainty. I found him ready to second me, but resolving not to act rashly, I went round a little towards her hinder parts, when perceiving her ordure to come involuntarily from her, Thomas, says I, she will never rise more; fear nothing, let us both proceed, and dart her together.

We need not (as we soon found) have been in such fear, for the creature was past rising, and two or three strokes of our spikes dispatched her; now my great concern was for the calf, which lay dying also in the pit. I took my hat, and whilst the cow was yet warm, I milked her into it, near a quart; then descending into the pit, I dipped my hand into it, and rubbed the calf’s nose and mouth, and lifting up her head, I poured about a spoonful into her jaws, and let it lie till it purged out again by degrees; then calling Thomas, I made him hold the calf’s mouth open, with its head up, and poured in half a pint, moving and making the gullet, till opening her eyes, she gave a gulp, and swallowed it.

I stayed a little longer, and then gave her the like dose, which, with as much difficulty, she again swallowing, I set down my hat, and taking off Thomas’s, I tried what I could do, to procure some more from the cow, but her udder by this time growing stiffish, I could, with great difficulty, obtain scarce half a pint.

I then returned to my calf again, and at several repeated trials, got down my whole hat full of milk; when laying my hat crown upwards, I placed the calf’s head gently upon it, and got out of the pit to make the best of the cow, whose throat I now cut; but the blood was chilled too much to flow, and I must own, that although the death of the beast was the preservation of us, yet, I could not help being very melancholy, to reflect upon the tenderness of the brute to her young, rather persevering to death, than deserting it. In the midst of these thoughts, looking down upon Thomas, his head was bowed over the calf’s, whilst he was rubbing and chafing its limbs very tenderly; and though I spoke two or three times to him to come to me, he never lifted up his head, or returned me an answer; this I wondering at, and more narrowly observing him, perceived the tears to trickle down his face in great abundance. The sight of this moved me too much to permit me to blame him; so letting him go on, I proceeded to skin some part of the beast for our dinners, and carrying it to the fire place, I got it ready, and then called him. I observed the poor fellow to wipe his eyes several times as he came to me when he was sat down, I asked him how the calf did; he told me, with great seeming satisfaction, that he hoped he should raise it, for that it was grown much better: I replied, smiling, one would think, Thomas, this calf and you were relations, by your concern for her, for I perceived you wept over it. It may be a weakness in me, said he, I own; but I confess I did, and can scarce refrain from it now, when I consider the poor mother’s love, in yielding up herself a sacrifice, to the misfortune of her young helpless calf; but then to reflect, that even when dead, she contributed that nourishment to the poor little creature, which I still hope will add years to its being, that circumstance moved my passions exceedingly.

I never conceived a truer love for any one in my life, than this notion of my companion’s compassion gave me for him; and far from charging it with any thing unmanly, I looked upon human nature in a more exalted view, from this example, both for its capacity, and will of commiseration for its fellow creature; and the idea of Thomas’s gentle disposition, had given me such a good opinion of him, that nothing but a discovery I made some months after, could have heightened.

But to return to my narration, we having dined, Thomas told me, he would go look after the poor little calf again, and I went with him, when we found the creature lying upon its belly, with its legs under it, in an easy manner; and with its head looking very brisk and upright. We judged it to be about six months old, and upon our offering to get down to it, up it started, and made us sensible of the wildness of it’s nature; for it bounded about, round and round the pit, making several fruitless offers to leap out. Thomas said, he was resolved to try and tame it, which I was not against; but told him, if we attempted any such thing, it must be by hunger and strait confinement; wherefore I proposed giving it nothing more that night, but for us both to jump into the pit, and tie its legs, so that it could not rise to hurt us, and then to let it eat nothing for some time, but what it received immediately from our hands.

We consulted several other methods of management; but I insisting on tying its legs, and hampering its head, before it got so much strength as to become more mischievous, we descended the pit, and having avoided some of its pushes, we hampered her so well, that we could do what we pleased with her. Thomas then cut an armful of grass and carried it, with a bottle of water; but though she did not shew any regard for the grass at all, seeming too fearful to taste it, yet upon being offered the water, she clapped her nose to it and drank it all up, as far as she could follow it with her head, she flung her tail and seeming highly delighted; and tho’ Thomas stroked his hand over her body most part of the time, she would not withdraw her nose from it.

She had no sooner done drinking, than she fell to the grass and made a good meal of it, Thomas standing by and serving her all the time; and in three or four days more, being kept from the other beasts, and only seeing us, she became so familiar as to follow us round the pit for grass or water, and in less than a month, she would go through the wood with us to the mountain, and suffer herself to be led about like a dog by us in a halter, of which we had by this time good store, from the thickness of my thumb to the fineness of a twine packthread, made from the guts we had dried.

The next morning after the death of the cow and captivity of the calf, we fed it very early, and then took a walk to the shore we were cast upon; where sauntering about an hour on the strand, we ascended a small rough rock that jutted into the sea, it may be an hundred yards. We went to the point of it, and sitting down, were reflecting upon the alteration of our present condition, from what it was on our being cast on the shore about two years before; and while we were thinking, and scrabbling with our hands upon the dust that lay in the roughness of the rock, I putting my finger on some account, to my mouth, cried out, Thomas, I have found salt. That were a find indeed, says he but I insisting upon it, clapped some of the dust between my fingers to his mouth, when we both agreed, that it was a very good and sharp salt: We then took a pinch to palate again more narrowly, but upon sucking and chewing it, found it to be very gritty and full of sand; this was sorrie discouragement, but having found the thing we so long wanted, we despaired not of rendering it profitable to us. We then followed our search over the whole rock, and in some places, where there were large hollows, which the sea often warned over, we found great quantities, even bushels in a place.

This lucky accident made us so alert, that, resolved not to return empty, we filled as much as our jackets would hold, and carried home with us. This salt, where it lay thick, was very good, and free from grit; so that we no sooner arrived, than we not only fell to work with the flesh we had cut from the cow, and cased that up in our leathern cupboards, but we cut also a vast quantity, sufficient to fill several skins. In short, we spent all our fish, and fetching a great parcel more the next day, in a large skin, which we flung upon a pole, and carried between us; with that, we salted up as much as we could eat in six weeks or two months at ease.


Pickle their meat in skins and hang it in the trees. Build a booth on the mountain. Looses Thomas. Finds him speechless. Thomas will not discover his hurt. Daniel insists on assisting him. Thomas discovers that she is a Woman. Daniel relieves her. His reflection. Watches her all night

BEING thus provided with a standing supply, we sewed it up in our Skins to keep it from the flies, and hanging them in the trees, and daily thrusting fresh salt into the hole we left for that purpose, and stopped with grass, we always kept the skins running over with brine; and then, so soon as our calf was gentle enough to be led by us in a halter, we went to the mountain, carrying the cow’s skin with us; where erecting several poles on the most conspicuous point, to them we fixed the hide extended, with the tail hanging downwards, which being on such an eminence, might be seen with a good glass several leagues at sea.

The mountain being so very much exposed to the sun, we resolved to build a sort of booth, on a convenient nook we had found, to shelter us from the heat; and though it appeared to be a laborious undertaking, at the distance we were from the woods; yet by constant application, in a week’s time, we had covered it in with shady evergreens of a large leaf; but still wanting a turn or two more to compleat the work, (for we alternately one fetched the wood, and the other worked at the booth) Thomas having been gone for his turn of wood much longer than usual, and I having worked up all that I had with me, began to be in great concern for him, for fear of some accident; I waited in expectation of his return, till my impatience would not suffer me to continue any longer in suspense; I took the same way down the mountain, that I had seen him take, calling and hollowing all the way I went, for him to hear me, but received no answer; I then entered the wood, and had not passed far in it, before I beheld poor Thomas, to my thinking, quite dead, lying on his back; my concern then pressing me forward, I fell upon his face and killed him. I perceived he was alive indeed, though unable to speak or cry out for pain, neither could he raise himself forward to sit up in the least; when I went to lift him up upon his feet, he screamed enough to pierce one’s heart; but I could by no means collect from him the cause of his disaster; all that I could get out, was, Let me die, let me lie and die here.

My reader must be satisfied, from what he has already heard, that these words of my sole companion, for whom, and for whose good qualities and personal merit I had the highest esteem, must cut me to the very soul; especially being ignorant of the cause. I begged him over and over, to shew me, or signify where and how he was hurt, but could get nothing from him relating to it; which making me outrageous, I declared he would not die, if I could prevent it; and supposing he had broke a rib, or run his knife into himself, or some such thing, I began to strip up his jacket, infilling upon finding out the cause myself, rather than suffer him to lie in such agony; but he stopped me, by desiring I would lift hard under his shoulders behind and raise him on his legs; I lifted with all my force, when keeping his body extended stiff, he raised up on his feet, but could not then stand without support, he was in such misery; yet all he would say was, O! that he was but at the booth; O! that he had but died outright.

It was a full mile and half to the booth, but I told him since he was so desirous of reaching it, if my strength would any ways hold out, I would carry him thither. He was in too much pain for me to expect regular replies to what I said, so having collected his inclination from what had passed, I took his arms cross my neck, and made a push with him, so far as ever my strength and wind would permit; when, perceiving it was a job not easily to be compassed, and as most of the way we had now to go was a steep up-hill, I told him, my fears were that I should not be able to carry him thither; for that he hanging only by his arms round my neck, drew twice the weight as mounting on my back would do; hut that if he could rise high enough on my hips, to suffer my hands under his thighs, I would engage to climb the hill with him. He told me, his pain was too intollerable to permit him to do it; and again, begged me to lay him down, and leave him to die by himself. His repeating that request, and not giving me the least insight into his disorder, threw me into so violent a rage, that I swore I would strip him stark naked, but I would discover his hurt; for I could no longer bear the torture of my own mind till I knew it.

He seeing me in such a desperate fury, told me, that since I would not permit him to die in peace, though he should be sorry to leave me, he found himself under an absolute necessity of revealing to me a secret, he would willingly have ever concealed from me. Tell me of no secrets, says I, but let me know what I may best perform for your service, and to give you some help and assistance; for it is even bitterer than death itself to me, to see you thus and not know the cause, or which way to apply a remedy. Oh! Jack, says he, whilst I was cutting a bough, I slipped from the tree, and fell upon a doated snag, which has penetrated my groin, and by the pain it gives me, I believe is broken into it. Come, come, says I, let me see immediately, that I may extract it, (if it be) or apply some healing thing to cure you; what occasion was there for making this so mighty a secret? Dear Jack, says he, you must know all, I am a woman, and had rather now you know it too, to suffer death, than to expose myself to you. I grew almost mad at her dallying, and giving her a curse. What if you are a devil, says I, must you die for want of help, because I am not so too? So I laid her all along, and found that a piece of sharp wood, as thick as a truncheon at the larger end, had penetrated the rim of her belly, near the groin, and was broken off, rather within the skin; upon which, I took out my knife, and thrusting down the flesh on that side where it was most buried, I fixed the point into the wood, and then clapping my thumb nail to the opposite side, which rose above the flesh a little, I pulled with all my strength, even till I sweated, before I could make it stir, for I was in terrible fear lest my knife would slip, though I did not hint it to her, and at last out it came. God bless you, says she; Oh! what relief have you given me.

I said but little in reply; but covering the wound with her shirt, I gently removed the blood from the point of the stick, to see, if I could from thence discern, whether any part of it was left behind; but apprehending there was not, I soaked up the blood, and taking off my handkerchief, I clapped it to the wound, as well to staunch the bleeding, as to keep out the air, till I had considered what to apply to it. I then ran and picked up a handful of the most succulent plants I could and, and chewing them, till they were quite worked up to a mash with my spittle, I filled the wound with them, and making a bandage with my handkerchief, tied it safe on.

My companion had never before met with so deserving an object to work upon, and consequently I had never before felt it in so great an excess; for though the wound was very large and dangerous, yet I was more moved at the confusion and distress of my patient, upon the first sight of me, after the operation was over, than at that; and it raised infinite reflections in my own mind, of what had frequently happened between us, whilst I remained ignorant of her sex; but I was intirely to seek for the cause, why no part of her behaviour had ever before distinguished her to me for what she was; when it was now impossible by any force me could, to my thinking, put upon herself, for her to conceal it from me in the least gesture or action. I knew not where to divide between her present and past actions, or to separate the manly from the womanly part of them; but yet, as she had neither said or done any thing unmanly before, so in my judgment, she neither did or said any thing manly now; from whence I naturally judged, that what we take things to be, that they certainly are, as to us; and that the distinction rather lies in our own true or false judgment, than, in the objects themselves.

I have declared how agreeable a companion she was always to me as a man; we never had the least difference, or disagreement between us; and it may be easily imagined, that she was not less so, since the late occurrence. The friendly regard I had for her before, being now exasperated into extravagant love, which I neither could, or endeavoured to conceal; in order to remove her bashfulness, at my proceeding in her cure, I plainly told her, that I loved her, and as I had no occasion in our present circumstances to fear a rival, I was in hopes, from the consideration of her past behaviour, that I was not disagreeable to her; and that, as it would be very hard, if we two, where there were no other choice, should not from meer necessity engage ourselves to each other, when she was well again; so I could see no reason for us in the mean time to use any shyness, till that happy moment arrived; and that what had happened, ought to be so far from giving her any real uneasiness, that I hoped we should both soon have cause to praise providence, for cementing by that means, the good harmony which had so long subsisted between us, by an inseparable union both of persons and affections.

My mild and loving discourse to her, though she was not insensible of the intrinsick truth it contained, could not however absolutely subdue her virgin reservedness; and truly, I believe, notwithstanding the freedoms that have been between us, and that the way of life she had entered into, might not indicate any great delicacy of sentiments in her, that there never was a more valuable, or modest woman, when she appeared to be so; not that I can upon recollection, charge her, as a man, with the least indecent word or behaviour whatsoever.

It began now to be time to look about us, and consider where we should pitch our tent, for the day shut in apace. I asked her how she found herself after her dressing, and told her, that as I believed she would not be able to shift her station, if she pleased, I would watch by her while she slept, for fear of any surprise by the cattle. She thanked me, and said, she was at present pure easy, and believed she might be able to walk a little way, if there was any place near, that I should judge safer than where we were. I was very, glad to hear her say so, and lending her my hand to rise, she seemed to move in tolerable satisfaction, but I would not suffer her to exercise much, though she hinted as if she could walk to the booth, for I was very fearful of inflaming the wound; so I led her to a brake of bushes and trees, laying her down on the most convenient part within side, and then stepped away to water our calf and remove its tedder, which I did at a large distance from us, lest the wild ones perchance hearing if, should give us more than we coveted of their company.


Difference of behaviour between them. Draws her to the booth. Lays her to rest. Recovers. Daniel courts her. Her objections. He overcomes them. Their marriage ceremony.

HAD my reader but been an invisible spectator of our actions, looks, speech, and behaviour to each other, since the late discovery I had made, he would have smiled; not only to have seen me, who had before been dictator in our little commonwealth, now submissively requiring a token of consent and approbation to each purpose, before I set about it: But from Thomas and Jack, the sole appellations we were distinguished by, to have heard nothing but Mr. Daniel, and my dear, at every turn; and to have observed the circumspection each used in their behaviour, lest the least word or action should give the other offence; could he but have seen me, from a rough cast fellow but few hours before, now assuming the airs of a polished gentleman; and her, converted from an idle spectator of my actions, to soothing and ogling me betwixt shame and fear; me, who used at our repose, to lay myself carelessly cheek by jowl by her, now keeping my distance, and cautiously avoiding the least annoyance to her; and her, seeming desirous of, and really to indulge my nearer approach, but submitting to such distance as I pleased to observe: I say, could my reader have seen the ceremonies we used to each other, he would never have suspected us for the same pair he had been acquainted with before; but yet, had he been able to have penetrated our bosoms, he would have there espied far greater differences than our actions were capable of exhibiting.

I insisting upon watching her, after abundance of endearing compliments on both sides, prevailed on her to compose herself; but for my own part, I never closed my eyes all night, but gazed at her with all the sweetest satisfaction imaginable, by the favour of the moon, which shone very bright. At the approach of morning she awaked, and declaring herself both easier and better, believed, she said, that she should be able to walk to the booth; and seeming to have such an inclination for it, I would make no opposition to the experiment; but entreated her, not to stir a step further than she should walk in perfect ease; for I told her, my greatest fear was an inflammation, from whence, if a fever should ensue, that might put her life in danger, and render me the most miserable object upon earth.

She assuring me she would be ruled by me, I took her up, and we walked gently towards the mountain; she held out very well so long as we kept upon the flat, but had not gone many pole upon the ascent, before sighing, She told me, she was afraid the hill would be too much for her. I then held her under my arm, and stopping short, insisted upon her not stirring a step further, and made her sit down again; but she growing very uneasy at her situation, and fearing, as the sun advanced, it would grow too hot for her; though I had the day before been but too sensible of my inability to carry her up the hill, yet my thoughts would not rest till I had invented some easy means of conveying her; so begging her not to discompose herself by her anxiety, I assured her, I would convey her to the booth presently, without the least injury or fatigue; stepping then to the skirt of the wood, I cut down first a large spreading branchy bough, and then as many smaller, long and slender ones, as would make a sort of hurdle, by interweaving with the great bough; after that, I laid a great parcel of tender shoots upon it, collecting as I passed to the mountain, two or three arms full of long knot grass, which I spread equally over all, and brought it before her.

She saw me coming at a distance, and could not imagine, till my nearer approach, what I was at; but when I reached her, and she saw the contrivance, with the care I had taken for her safety and ease, her eyes pierced my very soul, nor had she occasion for the use of words to express her satisfaction. I then raising her gently up, desired her to place herself in such a position on the grass, as would be least painful to her, in case she would meet with any jolt by the way; and told her, I now hoped to set her down safe at the booth, without any danger or fatigue to her. Here we began to compliment again, she being sorry to give me so much trouble as she feared I must have with her, before she was well again, and being ashamed that I would be put to draw her so long and toilsome a journey; but I told her, that the whole of my future comfort in life, depending on her recovery, I would never think any pains or skill of mine, even the consuming my whole self in her service, could be too great a price to pay for it; and desired her, never more to mention any thing I should do for her, as a trouble.

Being settled on the top of my machine, in the most agreeable manner she could frame, I took up the butt of the large bough, and proceeded with her; but tho’ I was unwilling to discourage her with my doubts, I began to fear that my project would fail me; for what with its own weight, the addition of her’s, the roughness of the bough, and unevenness of the way, I was at first hardly able to stir it, the hill being there very sharp; but I still pushed on with all my strength, and kept it going; till having drawn it some way, I found it come freer and freer after me, and at length it gliding on very smoothly, we arrived at the booth; but what was the joy and thanks of the poor creature, upon entering it? Had a king in like case, and danger, been entering his own palace, it could not have been greater.

O! Mr. Daniel, says she, I may now say you have saved my life, for I could have had no peace in my mind, till I had arrived here, and yet, of myself, I would never have been able to have performed the journey; but you have set me down at the height of my wish, as if I had been transported hither in my sleep, without the least fatigue or trouble to me.

I helped her off from the machine, and desired her to stand a moment at the entrance of the booth, till I brought in the grass for a bed for her; which having done, and disposed it level and smooth, I gently laid her thereon; and after giving her a draught of water, and a few nuts, I let her compose a little, and then entered upon my chirurgical operation: According to my best judgment, the wound looked very fair, and in a good way, which encouraged me to proceed in the manner I had done; and in short, in a day or two more, it digested very kindly, and about three weeks afterwards, me was able to walk to our old lodging and mount the tree; but I had kept her solely upon nuts and water, for I dreaded to let her see the salt beef.

She grew past my care since her walk; neither could all the art I had, ever after engage her to let me apply another dressing; she now was able to do it herself, she said, and the thoughts of submitting to my operation, unless when induced by absolute necessity, were so pungent to her, that she could not bear them. In vain I urged the repeated dressings I had before laid on, and that it was but the same thing over again, and the necessity there was of observing the turns it might take; all went for nothing: she told me she could not submit, unless she would be compelled by a relapse; so that being wholly cast off from my office, she became her own doctor, and in a week or two more, all healed up, and was well.

I now thought it high time to look after my own concern, and told her, that she being so happily recovered, I could not think of deferring our nuptials any longer. Mr. Daniel, says she, we are alone here and likely to be so for ought I see, and but for each other’s society, would be sufficiently miserable; though the good agreement that subsists between us, has advanced our condition to as much felicity as we are in this place capable of enjoying; but do you consider what may be the consequence of our union? We may have a family upon us, before we are provided for them; and will it not be a sad thing for our offspring, naked and defenceless, to share the common fate of the beasts of the island? We came hither cloathed it’s true, and therefore have not yet been sensible of the want of it; but those cloaths are now almost past hanging on our backs, without the hope of supplying the absence of them with others; again, if we had landed here without the two knives we have, and which are now almost worn away too, how could we have subsisted these two years as we have done? And when they are gone, which must soon be the case, from whence shall we have a supply, or what can we substitute in their room, which can answer the purposes we have hitherto applied them to? For to my apprehension, a bull, or a swine, will after that become as useless to us, as to the purposes of sustaining nature, as one of the many trees that now surround us is. Can our teeth make way through a boar’s shield, or the hide of a bull? No, believe me, no more than thro’ the bark of the tree; then let us reflect a little, on what we have wanted, and may want, which our children also must want, and whether we, or they, will have any means of obtaining it? Besides, suppose, as it is no ways unlikely, that we should die in our children’s minority, if they should survive us, for want of proper principles infused into them by us, they would become wild, as the swine of the island, and in process of time prey on each other, without the least regard to social virtue; or fear of an omnipotent being; so that we should but beget a race of brutes upon earth, than to be which, surely not to be at all is preferable.

Having ended her discourse; I, who could not see with her eyes, or be solely guided by her understanding, told her, that though the objections she was pleased to make to our becoming man and wife, from the probable consequences, seemed to bear but a melancholy aspect; yet, that they were no other than our first parents might with equal probability have made against their cohabiting together; and I could not see, why we should so far reject the hopes of the Almighty’s regard for us and ours, as to imagine that He was less active, or capable to assist us and ours, than He was to assist them and their progeny, who set out under the very same discouragements and yet succeeded; wherefore, I told her, I thought it our duty to propagate our species, that we might raise people for our great creator, to exercise his benevolence upon, and who might be capable of returning Him praise for it; and that for my own part, I would not mistrust both ours and our children’s well being, so long as we acted in conformity to the divine will, and doubted not of His protection.

After some further reply from her, to the confirmation of her first sentiments, I rejoined, that it would be impossible to prevail with me, to distrust providence, so I insisted upon pursuing the dictates of our natures, and to submit all the rest to that; which she by degrees growing inclined to come into, we that day consummated our nuptials; but that we might not seem to proceed precipitately, without such previous ceremony as we were capable of, I shall give you an account of our marriage rites.

I took her by the hand and kissed her, then led under the shade of the tree we had so long lodged in; I then asked her woman’s name, for as yet I had never heard it, and she telling me it was Ruth Comin; I replied, I John Daniel, do with the utmost good liking, take thee Ruth Comin, to be my wedded wife, to live with thee, whether on this island, or elsewhere upon the face of the whole earth, that it shall please God to dispose of us, as thy husband, all the days of my life; in token whereof, I bind thee with this ring, (tying a piece of cat gut about her finger,) and having said this, I made her repeat the same words on her part, as to living with me as my wife; then lifting up our hands and hearts, and begging a blessing upon our union, I kissed her again, which concluded the ceremony. ——— We then went and filled our water bottles, took some beef with us, and returned to the booth.


Comin gives an account of her family, and the cause of her appearing in man’s apparel. Their reflections on her former love, Have a son. Have a calf. Daniel finds two corps on the Shore, and strips them. Ruth surprised. His reflection thereon. Goes again to the sea. Finds several things. Loads his cow home. Forms schemes to dispose of his cargo. Lays a design of building, but relinquishes it. Want many things.

BEING now man and wife, as I have above related, I soon became very anxious after the knowledge of my wife’s family, and how she came to take upon her the occupation of a sailor, and appear in a man’s habit? She would, I believe, rather have been excused from the relation of it; but however, as she was now my wife, (and that I might not suspect worse circumstances than in reality the story was attended with,) she began with giving me to understand, that she was very well descended; that her father was Hugo Van Comin, a burgomaster of Rotterdam; but that from her very tender age, she was brought up under her uncle Herman Heyos, merchant of London, who had married her father’s sister, but had no children by her. Her uncle, she said, had a son by a former wife, who was much about her age, and being brought up play-fellows together, as they grew of riper years, they had contracted such a friendship, and then a love for each other, as was not to be easily extinguished.

Joseph Heyos, for that was her lover’s name, had not served out his time with his father, to whom he was apprentice, when he assured her, that his passion for her, became too violent for his reason to subdue; and though they both had coolly resolved, that their marriage, before he should be released from his servitude, would be premature; yet, he was ever soliciting her forthwith to consent to it; not doubting but it might be concealed from his father, till a proper opportunity should be presented them to publish it; but she said, she would not comply to any scheme so prejudicial as she suspected that might be to his interest.

She said, that they being always in the same family together, numberless little opportunities offered, for his shewing her more peculiar regards than were expressive of bare friendship only; these, she said, could not be concealed from the penetrating eye of his father, who growing more and more jealous of his son’s views, by the frequency of the instances which offered themselves to him for that purpose; he took him to task, and taxing him with an amour with her; he, she said, was so far from denying the fact, that with the most earnest entreaties, he begged his father to consent, to what he had so long and steadily let his heart upon.

Her uncle, she said, was not to be wrought upon by any persuasions, or tears of his son’s; but in great wrath, not only forbid him all further thoughts of her, but as an absolute bar to his future hopes, agreed with the captain of an East Indiaman for his passage to China, and without the least previous notice, sent him on board; that he might have no opportunity of cultivating a correspondence with her, in less than a week he returned her back to her mother at Rotterdam, her father being then dead; but though her uncle had acted with all this prudent caution, as he thought, yet she had received a letter from young Heyos, by means of a friend, before he set sail, informing her of the part he was bound for.

Under the assurance of where he was, and was to be fixed, she said, she left England with far less reluctance than otherwise she should have done; and upon her arrival in Holland, her head run only upon schemes, how to form an elopement from her mother, and to get a passage in some vessel bound to the East-Indies; for which purpose, her mother being absent from home for some days, she dressed herself in an old suit of cloaths of her brother’s, and slipping out unperceived in the evening, took passage at the serving of the tide down the Meuse, where she entered herself on board the ship in which we were cast away, pleasing herself with the agreeable surprise it would be to Mr. Joseph to find her so soon after him.

This, my dear, says she, is my history; nor should you have ever discovered my sex, had it been possible for me to have avoided it; but I’ll promise you, I have not had the least thought of Mr. Joseph since I have been your wife; but have esteemed myself extremely blessed, in so endearing an husband as yourself, without once repining at my lot.

I kissed her, and said, I could scarce have expected so free a confession of her amours; but was perfectly satisfied, that had I not at present stood first in her good graces, she would not in so frank a manner have declared the very truth to me; but yet, says I, I can’t see, as our marriage proved not a matter of choice, but necessity, how you could so soon transfer your affection from Mr. Joseph to me.

Either, she replied, I must have continued my love to Mr. Joseph, and consequently would never have linked myself to you, or if joined with you, must have relinquished my hopes for him; this, I was sensible to be my case, and time sufficient I had to weigh it in, between my hurt and the cure. I must own to you, at first my desires for Mr. Joseph preponderated very much; but considering how improbable a thing it was for them ever to be gratified, and ballancing in my mind the concern, the care, the anxiety, the regard you shewed for me, even before you could possibly suspect me capable of becoming your wife; and which I must say for you, my dear, from that moment expressed itself in the most pleasing tenderness for me; I from that instant you proposed marriage to me, having so many and strong motives to comply with you, never once, as I had before determined in my own breast, cast back a reflection of concern for Mr. Joseph, or have I now, any more, or other esteem for him, than as an old friend and acquaintance to whom I wish a lasting prosperity.

Having heard, and duly considered all that my loving wife had to say, I was heartily glad I had put the question to her; for her answer, and the reflections she had made on it, had not only freed me from further inquietude, but very much endeared her to me ever after.

We lived in the sweetest tranquility for the remainder of the next year, dividing our time betwixt the wood and the mountain; our calf being grown a large beast, and so tame, that we had for a long time left her unhaltered, and it followed us like a dog wherever we went, and always of its own accord lay near us on nights, where-ever we lodged.

In due time, Ruth brought me a fine boy, which she bore at the booth; but she was scarce well up and out again, before we all on a sudden lost our heifer, which caused a common concern to us both. We searched every where, where we durst be seen for fear of the beasts, and used all possible means to recover her for several days, but all in vain; till (having given her over) on the sixth morning, as I stepped out of the booth, I had like to have trod upon her, she lying quite cross the door way. This unexpected and pleasing sight, drove me back again to inform Ruth of it, who was no less delighted at the news than myself had been at the sight; for she leaving the child, and stepping with me, we all acted a most loving scene for near half an hour; the poor creature being as glad to see us, as we were to see her, and licking us with her tongue, while we stroked, and patted her with our hands; but seeing her back and sides dirty, we presently imagined what had been the occasion of her elopement, and that she had been to meet her sweet-heart in one of the plains, which in due time she proved to be true, by producing us another of her own species, which Ruth grew almost as fond of as of her own child.

We had now a stock of milk to add to our repast, and had several skins of both beef and pork hanging in the wood where our pit was, together with a large parcel of nuts, with which we had also filled some other skins; so that we could not be said to want necessaries. My wife had now lain in of a daughter, during which time of her confinement, I took a walk to the sea shore, on the eastern side of the mountain, being about four miles from us, having never surveyed the sea shore that way before. In this journey I found several gourds or pumpkins, of a very brittle thin shell and mostly fleshy within, of which I carried one home with me; I found also several other sorts of fruits, and a kind of wild grape, which very well recompensed me for my walk; but what gave me a great uneasiness and flattened the pleasure of my discoveries was, that upon the shore I found, just cast up by the sea, two human bodies; one whereof appeared to be that of an officer by his dress, and the other of a common sailor.

That unusual sight startled me indeed, and gave me great horror; however, my humanity inclined me to inter them, if I possibly could, and the sand being very loose and light thereabouts, I was in hopes before the return of the tide, to have raked a hole big enough for the purpose; but soon perceiving myself unable to perform it, I stripped the two bodies, and marched back with my prize with all convenient speed.

Ruth was very agreeably surprised with my cargo, but wondered where I could have got it, till I told her of the accident which had produced them. We agreed that they came in very good time, both for ourselves and the children, for they were both naked, and we had purposed to keep them so; and ourselves were now very little better, the shirts being entirely gone, and a third part of our jackets and waistcoats. Now, Ruth, says I, am not I in the right to rely on providence? Is not this as well as having a shop to go to, and buying these things? She agreed it was very providential indeed, but now seemed to wish for cloathing for her children, and said, she would some how patch our old cloaths up for the boy.

I laid the things down by her, as she lay with the young infant in her arms; when a flap of them hitting her leg, here is something, my dear, says she, very hard in one of the pockets; then running her hand in, she pulled out two handkerchiefs, a tobacco-box, and a long clasp knife of nine inches in the blade when shut, with a strong saw of the same length, and a bodkin on one side, and a long hook on the back; whilst I was surveying this, and adapting it to several uses in my own brain, she pulled out a large leather letter case, stuffed very full, and tied with a piece of green ribbon. Ah! Ruth, said I, I’ll warrant you that contains all the poor gentleman’s treasure; now if we were where we could, get the money for all the papers that it holds, we might be topping folks at last; by this time, Ruth, who had all the while been fumbling at the string, had untied it, and unloaded its contents, they proved of infinitely more value to us, than all the gold or notes in the universe would have been; for it was crammed top full of threads, silks, tapes, ribbonds, pins, and needles; this my wife laid by as a special relick. There were several other things that might have been valuable in another place, but were but of little service here, save his watch, and a small case of instruments in his breeches pocket.

Having had so good luck with the gentleman’s habit, we came in the next place to examine the sailor’s; here we found another tobacco box, a flint and steel, and some tinder in a little iron box; a new silk handkerchief, a knife and fork in a sheath, a brass pipe in a case, and some other trifles; but the shoes and stockings with the rest of the cloaths, and the trowsers, were a present, as we thought, for an emperor.

The next morning, I could not rest till I had renewed my walk, which Ruth was heartily sorry she could not accompany me in; but however, the cow and the calf went with me. As I was satisfied there must have been some ship wrecked very lately by the freshness of the bodies I had found, I was in great hopes of meeting with some further advantages by my journey, and eyed the water very narrowly, as I approached it, to see if I could discover any thing floating in it; but could see nothing, till I came over a little ledge, that had prevented my sight of the sands; and then, the first thing that I spied, was about three parts in length of a large mast, with two sails, and several ropes hanging to it; the water was then coming up, and the butt end making with the surges. I was terribly afraid it would be a-float before I could secure it, and what I wondered at, was, that as the water raised, and suddenly let it fall again, I saw a stick, which to my thinking, was fixed to the great end of the mast, I immediately pulled out my knife, and cut the yard from the mast, and then the sail from the yard; but the sail was so heavy with the wet, and its own size, that I could not stir it from the place it lay in: I then drew all the ends of the ropes out in length towards the shore, and laid them as near together as I could; I then cut off the small sail, and drew that a good way towards the shore, and waiting for the rising of the tide, so soon as I found any part of the things to float, I pulled the rope to which it was tied; and then another floating, I drew that rope; so that by degrees, the swelling of the tide assisted me in getting them toward the shore; and having the ends of all my ropes above high-water mark, I drove in one of my spike poles, which I always carried in my hand, and fastened them all to it; having thus secured these things, I stripped, and wading up to my waist, was tying another rope to the stick I had seen at the but end of the mast, when to my excessive joy, I found it to be a large axe, chopped into the end of it, but with such force, that I could by no means wag or stir it. However, I deserted my purpose of tying the rope to it, lest it should drop out with pulling, but fastening it about the mast itself, I drew the butt end as high upon the shore, as the little end was, and then confining it, I waited with impatience for the reflux of the tide.

As the water sunk upon the ebb, I found my goods all left on dry land; and then, my sails seeming to be the most useful part of my purchase, I used all my strength to wring them dry, and spreading them on the sands, the sun soon aided me, in perfecting what I had so eagerly begun; but when they were dry, I could by no means carry even half the mainsail, and yet, I thought it great pity to cut it in pieces. After fretting about it a good while, a thought flashed into my head, that it might not be impossible to load the cow with it, and make her my bearer of it to the booth; so having myself drawn up the two yards, and a large piece which I had cut off the top of the mast, and secured them from the returns of the tide; I haltered the cow, and picking up a good armful of grass, I led her down to the sands, and laying the grass properly for her to feed on, I began my enterprize; first I folded the sails up in folds about a yard broad, with one end next the water; then I placed my cow on the lower side and began to raise it up by the end to her back, whither with much ado I got it; but before I could advance it any further it was down again; so that finding it would not be possible to proceed in the way I was in, as I was not fifty yards from high-water mark, I made a slip-collar round the cow’s neck, and tying two traces from that to the sail, the good-natured creature drew it up for me, with but little difficulty; and then not having as much further to a sharp sand bank, I resolved to get the sail upon that, if I could, and had hopes from thence, by bringing the cow close to the bank, of packing the sail upon her back, as I would then be so much above her. Though this cost me much time and pains, yet by little and little I effected it, and away we marched with the booty.

My wife who did not expect me to stay so long, beginning to be uneasy at my absence, had got to the door of the booth to watch for me; but the sight of such a figure as we made, (for the sail lay as high as my head in doubles, above the cow’s back) was startled, not being able to guess, who, or what was coming, for she knew nothing of the cow’s going with me; but then seeing the calf play about, she was sure that must be her’s, yet could not conclude, what it should be of so vast a bulk that was moving forward, for the cow was quite drowned in her furniture, till upon my spying her upon the watch, I called out, bidding her see what I had got here. Upon coming to the booth, and unloading the poor creature, we were both surprised at the immense size of the sail, and wondered how it was possible either for me to load, or the poor cow to carry it.

We now fell upon schemes how we would dispose of it, and thought of nothing less, than to cover some magnificent building with it; especially, as I had informed her, of my fortunate finding the axe; but my head ran so strongly upon my goods that I had left behind, that I could resolve on nothing, till I likewise had gotten them up to the booth; so the next day we went again, and the day following, and by degrees, brought up all the portable part of the cargo.

As we had observed the east side of the mountain to be a very commodious place for habitation, both in regard to temperature and health, and also from its being entirely free from every noxious beast that might offend us, we having never seen one of them on that side, or even near the top of it, so we determined to fix our future residence there: I went to work, in hewing down timber proper for posts and rafters, resolving to bind them together with my catguts; but after a week’s labour and more, I perceived myself very deficient in my performance, for want of proper tools to go on with, and feared I would make such a bungling job of it, as we would both be ashamed of when done; this gave me so much concern, that my wife took notice that something was the matter with me, and repeating her desire to be informed of it several times, I at length told her, that if I had but some proper tools to build us a house with, I should be satisfied; but to think that I would erect a thing that a puff of wind would overset, had made me quite sick of my project.

My dear, says my wife, I told you we would soon be in want of many things, that we would never be able to come at here, and that we would entail the same wants upon our posterity; and you will be daily more and more sensible of that truth, for you see that even now, when you find yourself in possession of many blessings, which were absent when I told you so, yet, those that we can never compass are still the most desirable; therefore since our complaints may be endless, if we cannot content ourselves with what we have; my advice is, not to look beyond our reach, nor ever to bemoan to our children the privation of what they, or we can only attain in imagination.

I told her, that I could not say, but she was in the right; yet, that if we had but such and such things, we might do numberless actions of such advantage to us, as it was impossible for her to conceive; but however, since we could do no better, we must be content.


Daniel and Ruth walk to the sea. He finds a shell. Its contents. Gets it to shore. Brings home goods upon the cow. Makes a sledge of the shell. Brings all home. Builds an house. In his Sixth year a violent hurricane. Hears guns. Goes to the sea. Sees a ship wrecked. Reflections thereon. Ship’s boat drives to shore with a bitch in her. Fears her, but spares her. Gets the boat.

MY work had now stood still for some time, and my timber and sail had laid useless, not having the heart to go on with it; for as I had all my life-time delighted in neat work, I could not bear to look at any that was not so in its kind. One day, after my wife was about again, she told me, she had a great mind to take a walk down to the sea, where I had employed myself to such good purpose, having never been with me there; but that she was afraid to leave the children alone in the booth. My dear, says I, if you can carry the little one I’ll take Jack, and as we don’t want time, we need not fatigue ourselves.

My motion pleased her very much, and we set forward, the cow and calf, as usual, attending us. When we got to the water side, I shewed her where I first saw the bodies, then how I behaved to them; then I shewed her the place where I saw the mast, and was telling her how I managed to get all the things up, and load the cow when turning to the butt of the mast, to shew her how that lay, what have we there, said I? seeing somewhat like a large chest, standing close by the mast; surely, says she it is another corps that has been put into a coffin. I think it is, said I, but I’ll go and see; so giving Jackey to her, I bid her sit down with the children, till I brought her word what it was.

I soon perceived it was not a coffin, for I saw a key hole and hinges. It was full six feet long, and almost a foot and a half high, and about the same breadth, and a large handle at each end; upon my trying to lift it, I found it to be so weighty that I could by no means stir it; but that, I supposed proceeded from the water, with which I did not doubt but it was full. I called to my wife, and told her, it was no coffin, but a sea chest, though the longest I had ever seen, and how to get it up I could not tell, it was so heavy; neither had I any thing to open it with. She asked, if she could be of any service, but I told her no, and desired her to stay with the children. I then fetched my spike pole, to which I had fastened the mast, and by degrees, edging it under the chest, I forced it over on its side, when the water ran out of it very plentifully; till at length ceasing, when I thought it was all exhausted, I turned it up again, and then trying to lift it by the handle, I found I could just raise one end of it; but much doubting, whether my wife and I could possibly carry it above the watermark, I took out my long knife, that I found upon the dead corpse, for ever since I had it, I had carried that in my pocket, and cutting the blunt end of my pole-pole flat, like a wedge, I strove to force it into the front of the chest below the lid, and at last effecting it, I by main force got it open; it consisted of three divisions, one of the least whereof was full of new callicoe shirts, which had never been washed, some cotton stockings, a piece or two of chints, and a few pieces of china ware. In the largest division which took up full half the length, there were two coats, a hat, two swords, two pistols, a powder horn of powder, a musketoon, and about three dozen of balls, two good blankets and a small rug, and all round the sides were stuck carpenters tools; and the third division was full of bottles with spirituous liquors.

I was all joy and gladness at this sight; so running up to my wife with an armful of the bed blankets and cloaths, I told her what I had found, and that the tide coming in very fast, if she did not now come and assist me, we would have half our cargo wasted away, and perhaps the chest into the bargain. Though she longed to be with me, she said, yet, her care was, what to do with her children; so I stripped off my new coat, for I had got the dead man’s cloaths on, and spreading it upon the ground, told her me must leave the children on it, till our return, for the eldest could not go alone yet.

She left the children with great reluctance, but necessity having no law, and such an opportunity not to be neglected, to work we both went, and but just lightened the chest enough to make it portable, before the tide came up with us. We had four miles to go with the children, and consequently could carry little else with us; so we lodged the chest safe, and taking each of us a dram, we put the things in again, and returned.

The next morning by day break, I was at the water side, taking the cow with me; I carried several of the cords with me, which I had secured in my first adventure, on placing the rug several times double on the cow’s back, to keep it from fretting, I laid two or three cords cross ways over her, and upon them spread out both the blankets, scewering up the ends as high as the middle on both sides. I left only a hollow on each side to put my goods in; in the bottom I put in the callicoes and cloaths on each side equally, and on them the tools and arms, and at last bound up all safe with the cords, so that my blankets looked like panniers on the sides of the cow, myself marching by her side with the musketoon on my shoulder, then shutting up the bottles again, for another turn, I moved off with my load.

At my return, for I was back before noon, we went to sorting the prize, and enough to do we had before night to perform it, for every new thing, of which there were abundance, afforded matter for some enlargement upon its utility; neither could I, who had shifted with so little before, find one thing among so many, but what it would have been death to part with.

Having finished our work, we went to bed, as we called it, or more intelligibly speaking, we laid us down upon the dried grass, but I could take no manner of rest for thinking how I would get the chest up; for all the rest now I had them, would signify nothing without that: It was a place of safety, I thought, to put anything in; and to have it rot there, or be warned away with the sea again, was a killing thought. At first, I intended to draw it up upon such a hurdle as I drew my wife upon, and was tolerable easy upon that head, till I considered how I would get it above the rising bank that bounded the sands, the pathway down it being very narrow: At last, I concluded upon a way, that I was sure would prove both safe and easy. I resolved to take my axe, and cut two bending boughs, which I would nail on to the bottom of the chest, so that the elbows might be opposite to each other, and then I did not doubt, but either the cow, or myself, or both of us would easily draw it home; and big with this thought I went to sleep.

The next day I prepared my elbow timber, took my hammer and some large nails, of which I had now plenty, and went to my chest; when having secured my bottom pieces, and stowed the bottles in again, I by the help of my cow drew all safe home, and in a few days went to work again upon my building. I did not set my trap above once in a month or two now, having taken my cow one day, and brought home a lading of salt in my chest, which from that time served me also for a cart; and it was not long before I split my mast in two, and hewed out two compass pieces of solid stuff for its bottom, which lasted me many years.

I built me two good rooms of stakes and mud, covering all with my large sail, and leaving only a small doorway, near the top, into which we mounted, and descended by steps, and with our blankets and rug, had a most convenient lodging; wanting little or nothing, but what lay plain before us. I now began to think, I had a woman for my wife, she having made her a gown out of the chints, and cloaths for the boy and girl. Thus we spent three years more, I having at the end of that time two more children, and my cow having two other calves, and her first calf big with another.

We were in the sixth year of our reign, when one night, as we were in bed in the house, there arose such a hurricane, that we were forced to rise, lest the roof falling in would have buried us under its ruins; but we were in no better condition without doors than within; for stir which way we would, we were almost taken off of our legs. Had not the sky been so dark and heavy, we would have descended into the valley, as less exposed to its violence; but it was so black, and rained so hard, that we were almost blinded with it, when we turned that way; so that we were forced to go over the top of the mountain to the west side to avoid it, and in our short march, were often irresistibly born along by its violence, the poor children crying all the way at our fright, tho’ they knew not why; at last, descending about a fourth part of the way, we were somewhat screened from its fury, by the ridge above us.

The morning’s approach administered somewhat of comfort to us, but the wind rather increasing than abating, left us destitute of further hope of safety by flight; and though we had imagined the valley to be the best place for security, yet we now perceived our mistake, for the eddies meeting there, tore up trees and bushes, whirling them, and prodigious arms from the woods into the air like shuttlecocks, till they fell from different heights with vast precipitation. The cattle fled for shelter to the woods, till the violent crashes of the breaking branches and trees terrified them to the plains again.

Whilst we stood trembling here, we saw a violent flaah at a distance like lightning, and by and by another, seemingly from over the mountain; at the sight of the third, the fury of the wind having just palled by us, we heard the report of a cannon, and some minutes after, of another, I could now contain myself no longer, but telling my wife, I would go to the mountain’s ridge, and see what it meant, desired her to sit with her back to the wind and lay all the children in her lap; she entreated me not to venture, but I was so full of hopes, either of succoring some in distress, or of relieving ourselves by their means, from our confinement on the island, that I would not be put by my purpose. It was a very hazy morning, with misty rain, which made it most uncomfortable walking to windward; but I had no sooner mounted the ridge than I saw another flash, and heard another gun, which drawing my eye to the place from whence it came, I saw a large ship, labouring in extreme danger, amidst the waves of the most tumultuous sea I had ever beheld; insomuch, that I frequently lost sight of it for more than a minute, and then again could observe it, as riding almost in air, above the waves for the like space; when seeming to fall headlong with immense celerity, I could conceive nothing less, than that it was plunged to the very bottom of the sea. I could see the waters raging on the lee shore below me, and pressing forward with such impetuosity and violence, as if they designed an assault upon my mountain; and though I was four miles from them, they were so elevated, as to seem just at me, and to be far above the level of the plain at my feet.

I called to my wife, representing, as well as I could, in a few words the horror of the scene; and let her know, that I would run to the sea side, and, if possible, contribute my endeavours to assist the distressed souls on board, if providence should cast them on our shore, as in all human probability they must be presently; the wind setting just in upon it. I was persuaded it would be impossible for them to keep off, observing that they must have approached it since I first saw them, by so much as I could now more easily perceive the parts and proportion of the ship, than I before could; but as they were yet at a great distance, I endeavoured to make a fire on the mountain before I descended, as a signal to let them know that their distress was seen; but all my efforts were fruitless, for I had no sooner collected an armful of combustibles to light, and had laid them on the ground, than they were whirled into the air, and dissipated by the violence of the wind.

I then fired my musketoon once or twice with powder, to let them see the flash, and charging it again, descended the mountain towards the sea side; but was many times stopped by main violence, and driven back again, my breath being often almost gone by the force of the storm in my teeth. However, I at last got upon the plain, just behind the shore, but was afraid to go near it, when I beheld the waves like mountains rolling to the strand, as if they spurned the banks, and would have lorded it over the dry land. I stood contemplating on this dismal prospect, when the ship being within less than a mile of more, I fired my musketoon, and was answered by a gun; but seeing her on the ridge of a monstrous wave, and all on a sudden disappear, for I saw no more of her, I presume, that in her fall so near the shore, not having depth enough of water under her, she foundered, or bulged against the ground.

I stood viewing the sea, and waiting for a sight of the ship again, for some time; till the reflections on my own past miserable shipwreck and miraculous escape, and the horrid fate of the poor crew just perished before my face, brought a flood of tears to my eyes. Good God! says I, what am I, that thy mercy should have been extended to so undeserving an object? For I am sensible of no good thing in myself, and yet, that so many poor souls as that vessel must have contained, and wherein there must undoubtedly have been some more worthy creature than I am, should all now perish, and that only myself and wife, should have avoided a like dismal calamity. This conduct of thine, tho’ it may seem strange to me, is still, I doubt not, regulated by an unerring rule of wisdom; but how, if I was spared only for my undeservings, and to protract in me a life, reserved for still harder fate to be inflicted upon? No, it ill becomes me, to have any suspicions of the unkindness of providence, after so many mercies already received.

It is true, says I, I was cast on this coast, with only one companion; but might not I have been here in most dismal solitude alone? A companion in distress is a great comfort; but has not that very companion, beyond my warmest wish or expectation, turned out to be a loving wife, and help, meet to me? And then, that we might not live in dread of absolute privation, and intercourse with our own species, upon the death of either of us; hath not the same providence supplied us already with four fine children, whose growth will daily render them more serviceable and acceptable to us: Now, all this could not have happened, had not my companion providentially been a female; since therefore, without my forecast, every alteration of my circumstances hath proved a further blessing to me; and as I am not destitute of hope, that even the fatal accident before me, may prove of utility to me; I must be a very ungrateful brute, not to rely on the provisions of the all-wise Director of all things, for my future support and comfort.

Having ended my soliloquy, and rising from my seat to return to the mountain, I cast a farewell look to the sea; when I thought I beheld somewhat floating, that looked black; but it was so far off, that it appeared very small to me, and sometimes losing sight of it for a considerable time, and then again obtaining a peep at it thro’ the billows, I determined to wait a little, and observe, whether it approached or not; and if not, I concluded that it must be somewhat fastened to the ship, but if I could observe it to move forward, I then would wait for its approach.

It was now high noon, and the wind had greatly ceased, but still the contention of the waters seemed to be but a little abated; when I plainly saw, that what I had so long watched at a distance, bore the resemblance of a boat. O! thinks I, if any of the crew are but so happy to escape in her, we may possibly lengthen her out, and get with her to some new settlement where there are inhabitants; for they will be able to inform me, in what part of the earth I am, and what course to take, to get in the living world again. I pleased myself with these reflections, till upon the arrival of the boat near me, (for it was a boat) I perceived myself strangely deluded; for there was no creature in her, but a large mastiff bitch, big with puppy.

I was now afraid that the surges would have dashed the boat to pieces upon the shore; but yet, the fall of them was too violent for me to attempt using any means to preserve it. I whistled the poor bitch, for she stood on the prow, with so turgid a belly and large dugs, that I did not doubt but she was near whelping, though I can’t say, but I was somewhat fearful of her too; when she barking very fiercely made me the more so, and had almost brought me to a resolution of mooting her with my musketoon; but first whistling, and calling to her, she whined, and wagged her tail so lovingly to me, that I could not have the heart to proceed; at length, clapping my hand to my side, and chirruping to her, she plunged into the waves, and forced her way to shore.

I was now in twenty minds how to receive her, for she run at me, to my thinking furiously; upon which I put myself upon my guard, with the musketoon to my shoulder; which she seeing, and taking it for a stick lifted up against her, fell upon her belly, laying her head flat upon the ground, and wagging her tail, seemed methought to beg my pardon for her rudeness; when perceiving her under so good command, and calling her, though somewhat sharply, she crept up to me, crouching on her belly, till I by patting and stroaking her, gave her encouragement to rise; but then the poor creature expressed her gratitude in so many windings, leaps, and fawnings upon me, that I even became enamoured of her, for her gentleness and good nature.

I had watched every opportunity of assisting the boat all that I could in coming to shore without damage; and the fury of the sea abating, upon the departure of the tide, one large billow threw her intirely dry on the soft sand, when the next falling short of carrying her off again, and the succeeding surges still abating their strength, by the retreating of the tide, I saw myself in absolute possession of the boat, till the return of the next flow; but no method occurring to me of removing her above high water mark by my own strength or flight, I set out immediately for the house, to bring down my cow to assist me.

My wife and children, upon the abatement of the wind, had betaken themselves to the house again, and were very much surprised at my entering it to them with my new companion at my heels; but I informing her by what means I came by it, and that it was the gentlest creature I had ever met with, their surprise ceased, and they made very much of her. I told my wife of the boat, and that I came for the cow to draw it on more, and recommending the bitch, which I then tied up and left behind me, to her care, I proceeded with the cow to the shore again, where having raised the boat’s keel with my lever from the bed its fall had made in the sand, with the assistance of my cow I drew it up to the shore, and leaving it there returned.


Increase of his family. Sees part of the ship above water. Finds a turtle, but knows not what it is. Sails in the boat. Takes the turtle on board. Boards the ship. Brings home a cargo. Account of what he got from the ship. Builds an house by the shore. Family increases. Finds seeds on board, and sows them. Gets fowls. Breeds tame pigs.

THE affairs of my family having kept me near home for some days, I went again to the sea, to observe if any thing had been cast on more from the wreck; but I was forced to go by myself, my wife having full employment at home, as you may easily conjecture, when I tell you that she was near her time, had four children to look after unable to help themselves; my bitch was in the straw with a litter of six whelps, and my young cow had calved; so that the family being pretty large, the mistress could not well be spared from it.

As I descended towards the shore, having the sea best part of the way in my view, I thought I saw some signs of the vessel above water; and upon a nearer prospect, the tide being lower than I had ever seen it, I was sure it must be that; I was no sooner satisfied of it, than my mind ran strangely on going to it; but then the impossibility of conveying my boat to the water, entirely dashed my hopes, and rendered it absolutely impracticable. I stormed and fretted to myself, that I happened to come so late, when perhaps I might never again meet with the like opportunity of the lowness of the water; and then, though my boat was launched, it would be of no signification. I had once a mind to have stayed all night, and have watched the tide’s coming up, and to have prepared the boat for putting to sea at its return; but considered, that my keeping out all night, would put my family in the utmost constirnation and confusion; at length, resolving to stay till high water, I amused myself with walking upon the sand, till I had rambled to the southward, almost three miles.

Whilst I was thinking of my return, and turning my face to the sea, to observe how fast the tide rose, I perceived something about a hundred yards below me, like a stump of a tree on the sands; I wondered how that would come so much below high water mark, imagining that it had formerly grown there, and had a fancy to view it; but when I came within twenty paces of it, I could see it move, which very much startled me; and walking round it at a small distance, the sand flew about my ears ready to blind me, till getting before it, for it moved slowly towards the water, I plainly saw a head move, and was then certain it must be some sea animal. I had my spike pole in my hand, and my sword in my girdle, that being what I never went without since I first had it, and finding that whatever it was, it was not swift of foot, I darted my spike pole at it; but it bounded back again, as if it had met with an anvil, and still the creature moving but slowly, but yet, as I had reason to judge, at its top speed, I boldly marched up to it, and with one stroke of my sword almost chopped its head off, so that it fell to the ground: Upon this, though the creature made some struggling with its feet, observing that it made no way, I poked it with my pole; but having withdrawn both its head and feet from my sight, I could not now tell what to make of it, and the tide coming in, I was very sorry I could no further dive into the mystery of it; I was then forced to leave it, for having stayed so long, I was obliged to run back again to my landing place, which was the only commodious one I had seen in my walk, there being a broad cut as it were, sloping through the sea bank, which was elsewhere very steep.

I had made an observation by my watch, how long the tide had been coming up, and found it to be upwards of five hours; and judging that the return might be above six; I supposed that it would be high water next day about ten o’clock in the morning; and accordingly, having with my lever, and a roller or two, fixed my boat for launching down the cut, I returned home, resolved, if possible, to visit the ship next day; and having no oars, I cut two very long poles, to push me along with, purposing not to venture further than they would guide me.

Having launched my boat the next morning, and the tide being now upon the ebb, as I had time enough before it would be so low water that I could come at the ship; I pushed up to the place where I had seen the creature I had found the day before, and the tide had just left it as I came. I then shoved my boat some yards further into the sea, and moored it to one of my poles, and taking the other in my hand, I waded up to the creature; having no long time to spend with it. Finding I could make no entrance into it with my knife, I went to lift it up, but it was almost too many for me; at last, with the help of my stick, I turned it over on die convex side, and then feeling about with n\y knife, I found I could make an entrance at the edges all round. I was very unwilling to leave it behind me, thinking that the hollow case being so hard, might be useful to me, if I could but get the body of the creature out of it; so I rolled it along upon the edge to my boat, and by main force, at length boarded it; but had much ado to wag my boat, till I had edged it more to the stern, and then the boat rising before, I moved off, and made to the ship.

I found it lying a little inclining to one side, and that all the masts were overboard. Now the upper port holes of the higher side, appearing fully above water, and the tide still ebbing, the first thing I did was to fix my boat, and to step over the ship’s side upon deck; then looking down the hatch, I found great part of it clear of water, it having only settled on the lower side; there were several hammocks and bedding, which I cut down, and threw upon deck, and also every thing that I could well manage, and carry off at once. I took particular observation how low the water sunk at lowest ebb, and finding it to sink as low within the ship as without, and to keep on a level with it, I was sure there was a leek at the bottom, not perceiving it to run out on the sides. I hove all that I thought proper into the boat, and when the tide began to flow, I stept into the boat myself, and fathomed what depth the ship lay still in water, which I found to be not above five feet. I then went on board again, and opened several of the upper port holes, and searching, found her to be a homeward bound ship by the cargo, consisting of bales of callicoes, for the most part that I could yet see.

As the water drove me from the hold, I got into the cabbin and steerage, from whence I took a compass and several sea instruments, and there I found three dead bodies, which after searching, and finding several valuable things upon them, I threw over board; then having rumaged for what else I could meet with, I loaded my boat chuck full, and made to shore; but had not the tide set in, and assisted me, I might have been lost, for my poles were now useless to me, the water being so prodigiously risen. When I came into shoal water, I worked for my life to reach my harbour, before the tide turned, that I might be able to moor my boat in the cut, at the very height of the water, or she would have been left on the sands, to the mercy of the night flood, which might have hazarded not only my cargo, but the boat itself.

I acquainted my wife with what I had done, and the next day harnessing my cow, I marched with my chest to unload my boat; and two turns brought all up to my habitation. Upon producing my creature that I had killed two days before, Ruth said it was a turtle, she having seen many of them at her uncle’s, and that they were accounted delicious eating; so we immediately, by her directions, opened it, and dressed a part for our suppers, for I had brought up two large saucepans, and a frying pan with me.

Finding so much difference between meer nature only, and the addition of art too, I could not rest till I had procured all that was attainable from the ship; so that my whole time was taken up in plundering and bringing it home; but when I came to remove the bale goods, they were too weighty to yield to my force, in the condition they were in, which obliged me to cut, the first that I attempted, open, and bring it up by arms full; but they were so wet and lobby, that it required rather the labour of a horse than a man to go through with it; this giving me some distaste, the next time I, came down, I brought my saw with me, and beginning at one of the portholes, I cut out a vast square piece from the ship’s side, even with the under deck, and by that means made room for a bale to slide out, which, by frequent prises with my lever, I easily effected, and fastening the planks I had cut out, sloping to my boat, I slided the bales down them into. I found a vast quantity of very good candles and wine, and every sort of household utensils; so that in short, I was as well supplied with every kind of necessary, as I could have been, had I gone with money in my pocket to the best market town in England; but I brought up only such things as were small, light, and most useful, piling all the rest upon the shore, till I had more leisure; for since my cutting the hole in the ship’s side, the water came with such force against it, on the least motion of wind, that I was very much afraid of her beating to pieces, and disappointing any further views; for which reason, I for some time lay on the shore, to take advantage of the night ebb, as well as of that in the day.

In short, having landed almost every thing that was portable, I took all the guns of which there were fourteen, from their carriages, and landed the carriages also. I forced out every bolt, cramp, and the least piece of iron work that I could find any where; and at last, removed all the brick work furnaces, and coppers, with the iron work; and then I set upon breaking up the cabbin, the wainscots and decks, till I had wrought her down to the low water edge, or even beyond it; leaving neither stick or nail behind me, that I could carry off: And thus, for near eight months labour, I had procured cloathing enough for an army, and materials for a little town.

When I had thus done, and began to remove them, the work before me appeared to be endless, with my conveniences, and I told my wife so; giving it at the same time as my opinion, that it would be less trouble by far, for us to remove our habitation to our treasure, than to be at the fatigue of removing that to us; and that having now boards and timber sufficient for a good building, we would settle somewhere near the shore, where, in case of another hurricane, we should be more under shelter, and in less danger than on a bleak mountain. This she readily coming into, we prepared for the change.

I began, with only making a little hovel at first just to sleep in; but daily wanting something from our old habitation, I made a cart, which I set upon the wheels of the cannon carriages, and joining my young cow to her mother, had a little team, with which I brought away such things as I wanted from my house: But not to tire my reader with each day’s transaction, and every little turn of my affairs, I shall at once acquaint him, that having at a little distance northward of my landing place found a small stream, which run into the sea, we pitched by it; and that at the end of my ninth year, I found myself in possession of eight cows and calves, and one bull, besides a bull calf or two, that we had killed in the family. I had eleven dogs and bitches, besides their mother, who was now grown old and useless; and I had six children, three boys and three girls; I had a house well boarded in, with a good brick chimney in it, consisting of four good rooms; I had a large shed for my goods and cart, and a shelter for my cattle; and that he may not be surprised at my large kennel of dogs, it will be sufficient to inform him, that I had trained them up to hunting the boar, and frequently wild heifers and young bulls; and though I often lost a dog, yet they bred fast enough to allow for destroying abundance, and for keeping up my flock of a dozen for my usual hunt.

I cannot say that any thing remarkable happened to me till my twentieth year, save that I had inclosed and improved about three acres of ground near my new house, and had always abundance of peas, oats and barley, which I raised from the seed I had found on board; and which produced much larger crops than I had ever seen in England, especially the first year of sowing, which I attributed to its being well soaked in sea water. I had raised a forge, and spent great part of my time in knicknacks, and useful things in the iron way, as a jack and spits, a plough and harrow; and I had transplanted almost every sort of herb and plant that I had found wild in the island into my garden, where those that answered were preserved, and the rest I threw out. I had also bred up a sort of pheasants, which I caught young, so tame, that they laid, and brought up their young about my house; but all I could do, would not reclaim the wild pigs, of which I had made frequent experiments; till at last, having left my garden door open one night, and catching an old sow in it in the morning, for it was so strongly fenced, that she could not get out, being very big with pig, and not able to leap. I laid plenty of food for her, and in three days time she farrowed a litter of pigs behind some lumber, I had piled up at one corner; I watched the sow’s coming out, and seeing the door open, with the dogs I hunted her out of the garden towards the mountain, where they killed her; I then made an enclosure round the pigs, so that they could not get out of it, and being but newly farrowed and weak, I caught them, and kept them upon milk in the house, till they were as tame as puppies; and by that means procured a great breed of them. I also made gins for a creature, we had no name for, but called it the cuckoe, from its noise; it being mad; like a badger, but rather larger, and was more delicious than, and as white as any veal. These were my usual works till my twentieth year.


Discourse between Daniel and Ruth on marrying their eldest son and daughter. Marries two more sons to two daughters. Jacob, his fourth son, ingenious at smith’s work. Their discourse. Jacob falls on a secret scheme. Marries all his children but Jacob. Description of a strange amphibious animal. Goes in search of a settlement for his younger children. Description of three federal places for settlements. Harry pitches on the last. Billy on the middle most. Return home.

MY eldest son John, being about seventeen years old, and my daughter Ruth sixteen, I found by their mother, that having heard of the numbers of people there were in the world, they grew uneasy at living in such a desolate state, and wanted to be in some of the great cities they had heard us talk of, amongst a number of people, where they might live, as we had reported to them, that other people did: Whereupon, I told my wife, that as there was no law to control necessity, I thought it were best to marry them together, that in case of our deaths they might have the earlier supply of hands, who, by turning their thoughts to their own preservation, might not only be helpful to themselves, but to each other, and supply the want of new comers.

My wife seemed to have a great aversion to so incestuous a union, as she called it, till I asked her, to whom she thought Adam had married his sons? Why truly, she said, she believed it must have been to his daughters, as there could be no other wives for them. I told her, that in the situation we were, we must suppose ourselves Adam and Eve, and act as they did, upon the same emergencies; so that at length she was persuaded of the necessity of it, and proposing it to them, who as yet were furnished with no arguments against it, they joined in with the proposal, and I gave them the old house, with a cow and calf, a sow and two pigs, with seeds to begin a plantation, their two brothers and I helping them to inclose a spot of ground, and to settle every thing commodiously about them.

About three years after that, I married my second son, James, to my second daughter Elizabeth, and set them out in the same manner; and three year’s after, I disposed of the two youngest of the six in the same manner; and by the time we had been there thirty years, I had fifteen grand children, and five other children by my wife, three whereof were boys and two girls; the eldest of the last three sons, for I called them my second brood of children, my wife making a stop of four years, between the sixth and seventh child; having been instructed by me in the smith’s way, was so ingenious at any device I set him upon, that from the least hint, he would perfect every scheme he prosecuted; but upon mentioning his marriage with his eldest sister of the second brood, he told me, he had other things in his head, and that if he married her, one of his youngest brothers must be unprovided for, and that he chose rather to prefer them than himself; especially as he was sensible from the care and pains he had perceived his eldest brother take, that if he was married, it would rob him of more time than he chose to part with from his business; and he said, that now there were likely to be so many families of us, we should find work enough for him, in the iron necessaries we would want.

I cannot say but this discourse of Jacob’s, for that was his name, pleased me very well; for thinks I, this will be a means of providing for my two youngest sons, and settling them, and one of his nieces will soon be fit for Jacob, if he wants a wife hereafter.

Jacob, whose head was ever after something new, was perpetually enquiring into the country I came from, and was as well versed from my report, as myself, in the arts, manners and customs of it, and was daily longing to be there; and as he was a mighty favourite of mine, was for ever pressing me to go thither in my boat, for he was sure he could row long enough to get to it. I used to laugh at his discourse, and pleased myself at his ignorance at first; but when, after a while, he became importunate, I shewed him his folly, in pretending to pass over an immense space of water, beyond conception, in such a little tottering thing as my boat, which the least dash of a middling wave would turn upside down; and then, I told him, our voyage would be spoiled indeed; for if the great ship that I came in, could not resist them, what could the boat do?

He begged me to tell him, what sort of a thing in every particular a ship was, which I did as well as ever I could describe it; and says I, it is blown along by the wind, against several sails, describing them, and how they were hung, and the size of them; the masts they hung upon; the vast ropes, and the size of the iron anchors: Iron anchors, says Jacob, iron anchors? Yes, says I, several of them. I am afraid says he we shall never be able to make a ship; but I wish I had one of the iron anchors. He then asked me, how far the ship I spoke of could go in a day? I told him, with a good wind, the breadth of our island in an hour; and how long was you coming hither? says he. It may be two hundred days, says I. He started at that, then sighing, well, says he, I must be content, I shall never get thither: That you will not, says I, unless you could fly, as that great bird does, pointing to a large water fowl that was before us.

We then parted, but yet not a day passed scarce, but we had more of this discourse. He kept mighty assiduously at his work, and sometime after, I observed that he was making several things in iron work, very fine, yet strong, but of such shapes as I was unacquainted with the use of. I asked him often, what they were for? but he always put me off with, You shall see one day.

Some time after, he begged me to give him a piece of the callicoe, that I had by me, (for I had abundance) which I did; and it was not long, before I saw somewhat on the mountain, waving about in a very unusual manner, nor could I for my life guess what it could be; but it seemed, by the dazzling against the sun, to be quite white; my curiosity then led me to take a nearer view of it, but I could make nothing out, till I had got a good part of the way up, when, what would it be but my son Jacob, with a large piece of this callicoe, tied lengthways between the spire ends of two taper poles; these I found he was raising and falling, to weigh with himself what resistance the air made to them.

I soon entered into an enquiry what was the design of his proceeding; but he smiling, told me, it was only an experiment, which he was reducing to practice, and that when it was perfected, I should know its use; and this I was forced to put up with, as the best light I could get into the affair.

A while after, he wanted some of the cabin wainscot that I had laid by; so I gave him leave to take what boards he would out of my store; and having lent him, at his request, some such carpenters tools as he wanted, he fell upon another branch of business, for a great while together; where I shall leave him, and return to the rest of my family, now daily increasing.

I had married my two youngest sons to their youngest sisters, and was about settling them near us, as we were now expert enough at working up mud walls upon raddle stakes, which we covered with bows and grass, to a ridge, and that we recruited on the top, as it sunk, still keeping it as sharp as we could to shoot off the showers, which at some seasons fell very heavy. I had distributed my dogs about, amongst the separate families, till I had but three left for myself, and I took now great diversion in shooting, especially amongst the doves in the great wood, of which we had such plenty, that we might almost have lived upon them.

Having a fancy one day to shoot some water fowl, I took my gun and my dogs, and one of my grand children with me to walk along by the shore of the southern part of the island, to which, and to the north west part, I had never yet been very far; we had rambled about seven miles, as near as I can guess, when my dogs spying a boar that lay wallowing in a swamp near the seabank, they sprung forward with great violence: The beast being surprised, fled, and at a good distance from us, pushed over the bank into the sands, the water being then pretty low; we ran as fast as we could, and came up time enough for a distant view of a violent fray between them, but observing, as I thought, five creatures instead of the four that fled from us, all in a skirmish together, for they were too quick in shifting places, for us to observe them nicely, I clapped a bullet into my gun, then looking again, I saw the boar at some distance, running as hard off as he could, and yet the scuffle continued, with equal fury as before; I then began to think it was some other boar they were baiting, but coming still nearer, and within a more distinct view of them, the most horrid creature presented itself that I ever beheld: It was about the size of a small horse, with two straight horns, each a full ell long, standing directly upright; it had a very short back, and vast broad hinder feet, with short thick legs, and round buttocks; but its fore part was very tall, and stood very upright, on such broad feet as were behind, with long strait legs; its eyes were very small, and the head short, thick, and blunt, with a wide mouth and lips, almost like a horse’s, a flat nose, but very broad, a short, thick neck, and hairy, as was the top and back part of the head; it would make a growling noise like a lion, when first he begins to grumble, and was very active with its fore legs, stamping, and playing his horns forwards horizontally to keep off the dogs; and though its hinder legs moved but heavily, and it turned about but slowly, yet when the dogs came near its buttocks, for they were fearful of attacking it before, it would, by throwing its head back, give them such severe blows with its horns, that I once, thought it had broke the back of my best dog; so for fear of mischief to them, I was forced to call them off.

I made the child, who was sorely surprised at it, keep some paces behind me, and then I walked towards it; but took care to keep out of the reach of his horns. It crept along, between sitting and standing, its hind legs being so very short, and when I lifted up my gun at it, it would stand still, lick its lips, and growl, moving its mouth, as if it wanted to speak, and to my thinking, uttered some articulate sounds. When I stood directly before it, it would stop and not proceed further; and if I held out my gun, it would retreat backwards; when I went behind it, it slapped back its head and horns, beyond the length of its body; but I observed, that when I went to its side, its head never moved at all; so that even with my gun I could not push his horns side ways, which I perceiving, went so near as to stroak it, without any danger; its skin was as soft as velvet, with very short downy hair all over.

I stood viewing it so long, that the tide had almost come up to us, and the sands began to grow soft, and then I had thoughts of shooting it; but what hurt, says I, has this poor creature done? It is an ancienter inhabitant of the island, perhaps, than I am, and its life as precious to it, as mine to me. If I destroy it, there is an end of it. No, it is its proper business and way of life, and as it cannot be an annoyance to me, neither will I be an offence to it; so I went to its side, and stroaked it again; good-by, said I, I could, but I will not hurt thee; and then withdrawing up higher on the sands, turned to see how it would behave in the water, which was then very near reaching it.

It no sooner touched the water, than it began to dash with its fore feet, and getting up above its middle, it almost flew, bouncing up, and then darting under water for a long way, then up it came, and at last finking, I quite lost sight of it, though I looked very wistfully after it, at least half an hour; then thinking it time to be moving homewards, the child and I turned a little to the right hand, thro’ some bushes, where in a large swamp, over-run with rushes and flags, we saw two more of the same creatures, feeding amongst the flags; but having satisfied my curiosity as to their frame and make, we struck off another way and left them.

Having married my two youngest sons and daughters, as I said before, and all the elder families encreasing, I advised them to seek a settlement on the northwest shore, to which I had never yet been; for I had several views in dispersing them; as first, by inhabiting the several shores, we should be able to keep the better look-out, for any ship that might be passing; and then growing so numerous, we could scarce procure nuts in the adjacent woods, sufficient to supply us all, for we had for many years made a sort of bread of them. So that by scattering our families, we should be more easily furnished with them; and again, we were always in readiness, if any wreck should happen, to make the most advantage of it.

I offered myself and some of my grandchildren to take the western tour with them, and inform ourselves of its propriety for such settlement; for as to the inland parts, we had no notion of fixing ourselves there, because of the annoyance we must be subject to from the wild beasts, which were so numerous in them. We set out, traversing the shore within view of the sea all the way, and coming a little beyond the end of the mountain, we saw a fine plain, of a mile or more over each way; Harry, my fifth son seeming mightily pleased with it, told me, he thought that would make him a delightful spot for his habitation. Come, come, says I, don’t fix your choice Harry, till you have seen all the rest of the land; however, you may keep the idea of this in your mind till we come back, and then by comparing one place with another, as you are to make your election before Billy, (that being the name of my youngest son,) you may then pitch on which spot you please; but there is something further to be done, before this place may be found proper for either of you, and that is, to see what conveniencies you can have for water and nuts; therefore we will cross the plain to the woods, in search of those benefits, before we can pass any judgement upon the place.

We did so, and found plenty of nuts, and also a fruit like a very large muscle plumb, which I remembered to have grown in our orchard at Royston, but quite green throughout; it had a very small stone or kernel, the coat not being thicker or harder than a parchment, and deliciously flavoured when quite ripe, as we found some of them to be; besides this, there were in the skirts of the woods, and opener parts of it, a small shrub, exceeding full of round red berries or pods, in each of which were, it may be, fifty small white seeds, as big as grape mot, which were enclosed in a fuzzy pulp, of a very disagreeable taste; but the seeds were full of a sweetish milky substance, of a pleasing relish enough, and we picked several of them, chewing them as we went along; and at the westward end of the plain, ran a pretty small brook of water. All this promising very well, we noted it in our minds, till we would have finished our perambulation.

This work having concluded our day, we lay in a thicket near the plain, and set forward again by the shore next morning; when the tide being down, some of us walked along the shore, and others on the main land. Having gone still some miles more westward, we saw at a distance, the whole shore seemingly in motion; Billy spied it first; father, says he, what is the matter yonder, there is a vast flight of small birds, I think, running all over the shore so that it looks to be all in motion with them? I turned my eyes to them, but could not distinguish what they were. At last, I judged they must be water rats, of which there were shoals in some parts, and my dogs had killed thousands of them; so I told him, I believed they must be rats, though I never saw any thing like the same number together before.

By this time, we were almost come up to them, when we perceived they were not rats, but must be the young spawn of the creature I had before killed, which my wife assured me was a turtle, and was so good to eat; we thereupon caught some of them, and I put them up in a piece of callicoe I used for a handkerchief, till we should dine, when I purposed to make a meal of them; but surely there could not be less than a hundred thousand of them, all of the same size.

A little further, it may be seven miles from the first plain we had seen, and about three hundred paces from the sea, was another plain, not near so large as the first, with the finest rising hill in the middle of it that I had ever beheld; for it sloped every way from a point at the top, to a brook which ran from the south eastward woods, branching both ways into lesser streams almost round it, except for a part of the way next land; so that it made a circular island, of about half a mile in diameter. No, father, says Harry, this shall be mine, for I am sure I shall meet with nothing more beautiful than this is. I told him, I would give no opinion till I had searched it, and the woods about it, for if they did not answer, the beauty would soon become disagreeable. We passed one of the arms of the river, which did not rise above our knees, and found the woods exceedingly well furnished with many useful things, and so having finished that day’s survey, we kindled a fire by the river side and dressed our turtle. I can’t say, whether some other cooks might not have surpassed us in sauce, and perhaps might have had more than fish; but we only cut them out of the upper shell, and taking away the lower, set them on their backs upon gentle embers, turning them in the upper shell till they were enough, and by the help of keen appetites, made a most noble meal of them. The next day we travelled till we came due west, and almost to the place where I was first cast on shore. The coast was here very high and woody, behind which, more inland, was the prettiest prospect I had ever seen, being, as it were, one continued vista from the wood, over several plains, quite cross that angle of the island, for about eight miles; at the end of which, you might see the southern sea. The descent to the first valley lay in a regular hollow slope, rising to each side, where it was bounded with wood, and upon the top of the highest ground, just fronting the vista, was a lawn of about two hundred paces diameter, quite square, with a spring of the softest water I had ever tasted, issuing from that side next the sea, and which, by length of time, had cut it self a drill in the ground, where, in its descent from the several little precipitate falls it had, it made a perpetual murmur; and quite at the bottom, had swelled itself into a regular basin; so that looking either southward, or northwestward, you had at the one a most charming distant, and at the other a regular near prospect; and the woods, upon searching them, presented vast plenty of nuts and many vines, whereon hung natural dried grapes, as fine as I ever tasted any raisins in my life, with divers other fruits.

The shore was pretty rocky, upon which, at low water, was plenty of salt, and such abundance of crabs and lobsters, as would have been sufficient provision for all the souls upon the island. Here we lay the third night, and then asking Harry, now he had surveyed the lands of our whole intended journey, which spot he should choose to inhabit, he was so confounded with the thoughts of each, that he knew not how to pitch on either; till at length, he told me, he would remain where he was; for the benefits of the salt and fish being so near him, he thought could not be counter-ballanced by any of the advantages of the other places; to which Billy replied, he was heartily glad of it; for, says he, if my brother had made choice of that delightful place we came last from, I would never have been at peace, for the envy I would have born him; but since he has left me my round hill, let him take all the rest to himself, if he pleases.

I told them, it gave me a singular pleasure, to perceive them both so well suited, and that we would the next day traverse the ground back again for my house, where I would endeavour to accommodate them both with such things as I judged most useful for them to begin with, and would get some of their brothers to assist each of them in framing their settlements.

We set forwards next day in our return, when we saw a very large fish, about a yard and half long, run, as it were, out of the water, up the sand, and presently a much larger shewed its head and shoulders, as in pursuit of the lesser; but the water ebbing very fast, it could not reach it; and indeed, had like to have stuck on the sands itself, but struggled back again with great difficulty. I bid one of my sons run and fetch up the fish, but he called out for help, when he came to it, being unable of himself to manage it; when they had brought it up, we measured it, for I never went without a rule in my pocket, at a yard and half and two inches long, and thick in proportion: It was a smooth coated fish, had very large fins and small mouth, almost round, and was of so luxurious a taste, that we carried best part of it home, and divided it amongst the whole colony, for it weighed a full half hundred weight.


Prepare victuals and materials to begin new settlements. Order of their march. Settles Billy, and leaves him a stock. Settles Harry, and leaves him a stock. Daniel’s method to keep unity in his family. Name of his island. Has been there forty yean. Jacob borrows the cart. Stays three days in the mountain. Daniel thinks Jacob had made a Ship there. Sees it move. Jacob shews his father what he has been doing. Had been making a machine to fly in. A leaf to prevent hunger.

WE spent about a month at home, in preparations for our new settlements, and in laying in provisions, both of bull’s and swine’s flesh; for upon a general hunt, we always gave notice of meeting at a particular rendezvous, at such a day; and then, each coming with all his dogs, we went inland, each armed with a spike pole, whose spikes were now of iron, and each a brace of pistols in his girdle, and perhaps a musket or two, for we had got fire arms enough from the ship, and had saved a vast quantity of powder, by drying it in the scorching sun, till it was almost as good as ever, then singling out a bull, or other beast, we first fired at him with ball, and then, hit or miss him, we seldom failed taking him; for our dogs were so used to it, that the moment we mounted a gun, they could tell whither it was pointed, as we always, if possible, shot at a single beast, and then they no sooner saw the flash, than they bore away to it, all following the same creature, and never leaving the chase till either they had brought it down, or were too much spent to pursue it; but as we seldom failed of drawing some blood, if near enough, our dogs no sooner perceived it, than we were sure of the beast, for in that case he never escaped; then we cut him into portable pieces, and having well rewarded the dogs, carried home what each saw fit at once, or we were sure of its being devoured before morning. So having killed one bull and two hogs, we set out for the settlements.

We marched in all, four of us men, six boys, my two youngest daughters, and two female grand children, with my cart laden with a goodish sort of a brick that I had made, and other materials, drawn by three cows. We pitched at my youngest son’s settlement first, that being nearest, and loosing the cattle to feed, went to the woods, where we cut down as much timber as would build two rooms and a shed, choosing none, but such as was so far by nature prepared for our purposes, as not to require too much labour to fit it; then we drew down the largest on the cart, and every one, according to his ability, carried other lesser parts, even the children, bearing the raddling and mud twigs, and lighter stuff. When it was all ready laid upon the spot, two men sawed it in lengths, and split some of the thickest pieces, whilst two others dug earth for the walls, and tempered it; the children chopping off the spray twigs, and the women bearing them and knot grass to the tempered earth, to be mixed and chopped into one mass with it. When this was ready, the men worked at the building, whilst the women and children gathered bundles of grass for the covering; so that with the labour of many hands, in about a month’s time we had fitted out Billy with an habitation, and in another month, we had hedged him in a little garden, and about two acres of land compleat.

When we had finished here, we all marched to Harry’s quarters, and having in much about the same time settled him, upon the charmingest spot in the whole island; we left him and his wife, with one cow, and a dog and bitch, with part of the provisions we had caught, during our labours; and in our return, left Billy and his wife equally provided, and then we went home, having promised each of them some swine and poultry, with seeds, both for the garden and field.

The report we made at our return, of the happy situation of my younger children, roused up Jack, who had long been displeased with my old habitation, to seize upon the first spot we had seen in our progress. He first went to view it, and admiring the situation, as indeed it must appear most elegant to him, who had not yet seen the other two; he upon his return, applied to me and his brothers, and with his own sons, who were two or three of them tall lads, we began to transplant him thither, and fixt him and his family to their content.

I had but one inconvenience in my mind, that might attend this dispersion of my children, which was, lest they and their families should become strangers to each other, and for want of that cordiality, which frequent intercourse generally keeps up amongst neighbours, should in time, live in a state of war and enmity with each other, as distinct, I promoted to the best of my power, constant visiting, staying at each other’s houses for some days, and proposed diversions and exercises in the midway, for all to meet at; and by that means, keeping up a good understanding between them, they continued to live in perfect love and harmony together, so long as I tarried amongst them, which was long enough to see the southern shore well peopled; and at my departure, and for some time before, we were so numerous, that neither my wife or I, knew how many there were of us.

Jacob had for some years buried himself in a little hovel, he had built for his own use in my yard, and was always accounted of my family; and though my other children were disposed of, I had commonly one or more grand-children at home with me and my wife. I was now in the fortieth year of my reign in this island, which I had named, The Island of Providence; and the point where I had fixed my residence, I named Point Fortune from my receiving so much benefit from the shipwreck on that spot; when Jacob came and desired me to give him some of my wax, for I had a vast quantity by me, from the bees that I had destroyed for the sake of their honey. I did so, about three pounds, or more, wondering what use he had in his head to put it to; and I was satisfied it was to no purpose to ask him; but about a week afterwards, seeing him come from the mountain with his long poles in his hands; so, Jacob, says I, have you been weighing the air again: Father says he, it will do, it will do, and away he ran into his work room.

Some time after, he desired me to lend him my cart and a cow, to draw somewhat up to the mountain. I told him, with all my heart, and as I had but little to do, I would go with him; but I soon found I had touched upon a wrong string, he begging, I would excuse his refusing my company at that time, for he had an experiment to make, which if it would net succeed, he would be as much ashamed of as he would have reason to rejoice, if it prospered. Well, Jacob, says I, of all my children, I see you must be the philosopher, and left him, with leave to take the cart, and what else he saw fit. He did so, and stayed out upon the mountain for three days and nights. I often took a walk, and looked towards it; and as constantly saw some fresh appearance, by which I knew he was alive, or else by his long delay, I should have expected some accident had befallen him; but on the third day, as I flood below him, I imagined I saw somewhat like a large sail of a ship, flapping about in the air, and began to suspect, that after all the discourse we had about shipping, he had been putting somewhat like it together, on the mountain. I was laughing to myself, at the impropriety of the place he had chose to build his ship on; poor lad, thinks I, how will he be puzzled, when he wants to launch it into the sea? I was pleasing myself, I say, with these speculations, when I suspected that I saw it move, and wondering how it was possible for him to bear along a machine of the bulk that seemed to be; for I visibly saw it pass along, faster and faster, till some trees deprived me of the further view of it: I ran therefore to avoid the obstruction of the trees, to a spot, not above sixty paces off, from whence I could command the whole top of the mountain; when turning about, I perceived the ship, as I termed it to myself, landing almost at the further extremity of it, and in about half an hour more, for I stayed determined to observe the issue of it, I perceived it to move back again with great velocity, to its former station. This motion quite confounded all my former ideas of a ship, for, says I, though it was possible to make something with sails, that would be drove along before the wind by its force, yet how this thing could so apparently move with equal celerity against the wind too, I cannot imagine.

It being fixed on the first station, in less than an hour, I saw Jacob, the cow, and cart, all descending the hill; and being impatient to know what it was he had been doing, I stepped on as fast as I could to meet him. Son, says I, pray what conjurations have you been carrying on upon the mountain, for I have seen to my thinking, a ship there? Pray how have you disposed of it, for I can’t see it there now? O! father, says Jacob, I will now shew you your own country again; I am sure I can go thither with all the safety imaginable, and much speedier than your ship could go. But, Jacob, says I, though from the description of my ship, you may imagine, that you having made one so much lighter, it can go swifter; yet you don’t consider, that you have built it in the worst place you could have contrived for launching it. Launching it, says he, what do you call launching? That is, says I, letting it down gently into the sea at high water; how do you propose to bring it down from the mountain to the sea? Why, says Jacob, I have brought it down here in the cart. At that I laughed very loud. O! Jacob, says I, when I was a boy, I have made a ship of a bean-shell, and put up a little mast in it, and if your’s was to be set afloat in the sea, I suppose it would meet with the same fate as my bean-shell used in a puddle; to be soon turned keel upwards.

Father, says Jacob, I don’t understand one word you say, nor can I think what you conceive of me. Why, says I, I saw plain enough, what you have been at these three or four days: You have from the notion I gave you of a ship, been making some little thing, as like one as you can, and are now simple enough to imagine, that you can go to sea in it; and as tor going, I will not be positive but you I may; may; but I am as certain that you will never return again, if you do.

Indeed, father, you were never more deceived in your life, says Jacob, than at present. I have made no ship nor any thing like one, nor intend I to go to sea at all, for your catastrophe has driven all such thoughts from my mind; no, sir, you shall see. I will travel on a better footing than a ship: He then told me, he had brought his machine to absolute perfection, and that he had been making an experiment for flying in it. Flying in it? says I, what? And was the motion I saw upon the mountain flying? It was indeed, father, said he, and a delightful motion it is too. Had not you wheels to your machine, says I, or did it not slide some how on the ground as it went? No, no, says Jacob, I am sensible that no sliding on the ground can be called flying. Why, father, I actually flew in the air, without any other support than that sea mew hath, pointing at one, and if you will return with me, you shall fly yourself. I told him, that we would not return now, for he must be fatigued, and hungry, I supposed, having been four days absent, and that it was time to go home and refresh himself; but I would go with him some other day. Perhaps then, father, you don’t think a man can live without eating or drinking, says he. No, truly, says I, and he that does, must have but a short and sorry life of it. Jacob smiled; pray, says he, have not you and my mother many times wondered, how I could subsist on so little food as you have observed me to eat: We have indeed, says I, but yet a man must eat some; nature can’t perform its proper functions without it. Then, father, says Jacob, do you think I have been all this while in the mountain without it: No, indeed, do I not, says I, you must have been starved. But I can assure you I have, says he, and could have stayed ten times longer there, without the least inclination to any.

Pray father, added he, have not you observed some time ago that I declined coming to meals, at the same time with you and my mother? I believe I have, says I, but have seen you cut meat at other times and carry into your work room, That, says he, was only to deceive you, for the dog always eat it. No, I have lived six weeks together without the least nourishment, save what I have extracted by chewing these leaves in my mouth, pulling at the same time a handful from his pocket; well, says I, and don’t you call that eating; No, says he, I never swallow it, but let it only lie in my mouth. But you have had water, says I; not a drop, I’ll promise you, says he; and if you will make the trial, you would find it answer, as I say.

These facts so strongly attested by Jacob, a sober, careful, diligent young fellow, could leave me very little room to doubt of their certainty; I really flood in admiration at his inquisitive temper, which seemed to promise such wonders; then assuring him, that I would one day go see him make use of his machine on the mountain, we parted for that time, he having before promised me, at my leisure, to explain the whole contrivance to me.


Daniel can’t comprehend Jacob’s machine. Daniel and Ruth set out to visit their federal children planted round the island. Settle among them regulations for their conduct. Resolve to destroy all the wild kine and swine. Their method. Daniel goes with Jacob to see him fly his machine, which he called his eagle. Description of its parts. Daniel’s thoughts of it. Jacob flies in it, and entreats his father, who consents.

THE machine Jacob had made, and the use he had in my sight put it to, ran prodigiously in my head; for as he had unfolded its purpose and design to me, I could not rest, till I had Sketched in my brain the method of its operation; or at least a probable means of performing the effect, though somewhat differently; but though I was always esteemed to have none of the least mechanical heads, I could by no means form any design, that my own reason could frame no material objection to.

About this time, my wife who had long been talking of it, had come to a re, solution of making a progress to visit all her children and grand-children, at their several settlements round the island, and take her leave of them all; for she said, that growing now in years, it would probably be the last perambulation she should be able to make; as the journey would be very considerable, of at least sixty miles. I told her, that she and two of her grand-children, we had then with us, should ride on the cart, and that I would walk by them; this we having agreed upon, we left Jacob to take care of all at home, and set forward. We made our stay longer, or shorter at each house, as it happened; and having this opportunity of visiting them all in a short space, I consulted with them separately upon several regulations to be made amongst us, for the well being of the island in general, and of each particular family; and from one to the other, I carried our resolutions quite round; some of them proposing, as they thought properest, alterations to be made to the general scheme, but all subject to my judgment; for they all still paid me the deference, of submitting the final reserve to me.

I had been in my youth very studious in the bible, the want of which I greatly regretted, though I gave them all such traditional knowledge, both of the creation and their redemption as I was best able; and I looked upon myself and wife, as Abraham and Sarah, or the old patriarchs, amongst the several plantations of our offspring; neither is it to be imagined, what joy resulted from our finding each several family encreasing, both in posterity, cattle, and conveniencies of life, all the way we travelled.

Amongst other proposed regulations, we came to a resolution, before all our gunpowder was gone, to root out, if possible, the whole breed both of the kine and swine; all the wild ones, I mean, that the inland parts of the country might become habitable, and be passed by us at any time, without danger of our lives, as heretofore; and for that purpose, I proposed a general meeting, when every one was to bring their dogs, and dividing into several bodies, each taking their circuit, perform the execution.

Our method, as I said before, was first: to shoot the beast we would destroy, and then pursue it with the dogs; and now that we might make the speedier dispatch, we fastened sharpirons, like a sickle almost, to the end of a long pole, and while the beast was at bay with the dogs, we struck with it at his hock, and cut the back sinews of the hinder legs, which having done, we called off the dogs again; so that instead of one in a day, which one sett of us used to kill, we could each sett disable, it may be eight or ten of them, and in about a month’s time, we had so thinned them, that it was difficult to find a shot in a day’s walk.

The boars were more difficult and dangerous to be destroyed; for they taking shelter, for the most part in the day time, amongst the bushes and brakes, it was a hard matter to dislodge them, and hazardous meeting them amongst the turnings, where we could no ways perceive them, till they were upon us; so that we dug pits in several places, baiting them as I did at first, and by that means brought them very much under, and whenever we met with a litter, our dogs would for the most part destroy them.

The preservation of the wild kine and swine was now the less necessary, from the abundance of the tame we had of each kind at our settlements, which every year were augmenting; and thus having in about six months, taken the circuit of the whole island, and settled its general economy, we returned to my old habitation. After some small stay at home, I attacked Jacob again upon his machine, when he took me into his work room, and shewed me the several pieces of which it consisted, most of which were made of iron; and though exceeding strong and tough, they were so thin, light, and taper, that I could not have imagined so great a force of iron could have been wrought into so little a weight; there were several pieces of wood work too, and one somewhat like a pump, but all so nicely wrought, as only to preserve strength, without superfluous weight; but then, the whole being in such a number of separate pieces, it was no easy matter to conceive, what sort of a figure it would compose, when each was adapted to the other; nor could I from the best idea of its single parts, dive into several of its consequences; but this I only could observe in the general, that I never saw pieces of work better executed in my life, than the several parts separately examined, seemed to me to be.

It was not long after this, that Jacob desired me to go with him to the mountain, to see him fly his eagle, as he called it; and I, with great expectations embraced his proposal; telling my wife, what I was going about, and planting her properly to be a spectator of it.

We loaded the cart, and conducted it up the hill; when discharging it of its burden, we turned the cow to graze, and began our operation. He first of all struck four poles into the earth at proper distances, measuring them with four bars, in the ends of the two longest of which, on the flat sides, were four holes, into which the four points of the upright poles were to enter, at about three feet high from the ground; then letting the ends of the shorter pieces, of which there were several, all tennanted at the ends, into mortices or grooves on the inward edges of the two long pieces; he pinned them in very tight, leaving about a foot space unfilled up near one end, where he had contrived a trap door to lift up and shut down at pleasure; so that when the whole wood-work was framed, it looked like a stage or floor, upon which he could mount, by getting under it, and opening the trap door.

In the middle of this floor was a hole about four inches diameter, to let in a pipe like a pump, to the upper part of which was an handle on each side, and a pendant iron between them, which ran through the pipe beneath the floor; and the pipe itself was held firm in the floor, by four long irons fastened to its body, and screwed down to the floor in a square figure: This was the whole form of the upper surface of the floor.

Near the extremities of this floor every way, at proper distances, on the under edge, were driven in several flat and broad headed staples, into each of which were thrust and screwed in a thin iron rib, about three inches broad next the floor, and, from thence tapering to a point, at the length of about three yards, so wrought and tempered, as to be exceeding tough, and elastick, with each a female screw at about three foot distance from the edge of the floor; these were all cloathed with callicoe dipt in wax, each running into a sort of scabbard or sheath, made proper in the cloth to receive it, and being all screwed to their staples and the floor, made an horizontal superficies of callicoe, including the floor of about eight yards diameter, but was somewhat longer than broad.

On the under side of the floor was a circle of round iron, above five feet diameter, with several upright legs, about a foot long, equal in number to the above described ribs, and standing in the middle space between them; each of which legs entring upwards through a recipient hole in the floor, was screwed tight by a nut on the upper side of the floor. Between these legs, on the interspaces of the round iron ring, just under each rib, hung ballances, exactly poised upon the ring, with all their ends nearly meeting in the center, under the pipe hole, each of which, by an iron chain fixed to it, was linked to the sucker iron of the pipe or pump, and the other end was, with a like chain, linked to an iron loop, screwed into the female screw of the rib, just placed over it; and then all the cloathing was hooked upon little pegs all round the outward edge of the floor, so close as to keep the air from passing in any quantity.

Thus the whole apparatus being fixed, my son opened his trap door, and ascending through it, mounted his floor, fixed the handle, and began to play his wings, to see that all was right; but very gently, for fear of rising off his poles, till he was quite prepared. I then observed, that when the pump handle was pressed downwards, as in pumping, that raising the sucker, the pendant iron raised the end of the ballances next to it, when the other extremities of the ballances, hooked to the several ribs, necessarily descending, drew their corresponding ribs downwards; and that the uplifting of the handle consequently gave the ribs liberty, through their springiness, to return to their horizontal position again; so that they were raised and deprest, proportionally to the motion, and force of the handle, and exactly answered the use, and play of wings in birds.

Having found that every part answered to his wish, and having fastened his trapdoor down, the whole machine standing at such a height that I could both look under, and over it, it appeared to be of a vast dimension.

It was of almost an oval form, and each wing extended at least three yards at the sides from the floor, but at the two ends it was somewhat more; and there being a handle on each side the pipe or pump, he could make it go which way he would, by altering his own standing, as he told me, either on the one side or the other of the pump; for the side he flood on being the heaviest, and the other consequently mounting rather the highest; it would always move that way, which end was the highest.

I told him, I looked upon it as an ingenious sort of a whim to try an experiment with, and that as I had seen it play, I was now satisfied it would fly, but advised him to come down for fear of any accident; for now I had gratified my curiosity, I desired to see no more of it. What? says he, be at all this trouble in breeding up my eagle, and not take one flight in it? He wished, he said, that he knew which way England lay, for that then he would certainly go to my father’s at Royston. Poor lad, says I, you think that there is nothing but England out of this island; whereas England is no bigger, with respect to the whole habitable earth, than my hand is compared to this island. No, there are numberless places nearer to us than England. What houses, says he, and cattle and men there? Ay, says I, and Englishmen too, such as I am.

Jacob growing impatient of delay, come, father, now I am mounted on my eagle, says he, you shall see me fly. I would fain have dissuaded him; but he began with his pump handle, and rising gently from the posts, away he went, almost two miles; then working his contrary handle, as he told me, he returned again, and passed by me to the other end of the mountain; then soaring a little as he came near me again; father, says he, I can keep her up, if you can guide her to the posts. I did so, and he seemed so rejoiced at his flight, and so alert upon it, that perceiving with what ease it was managed, and how readily it went and returned, and he entreating me to take a turn with him, I at last consented.


Daniel and Jacob fly together. Shoot over the edge of the mountain, and can’t recover it again. Flew out of knowledge. Reflections on their condition. Are in the dark. Daniel’s reflections on his wife’s fears. See the Jim Could not discern themselves to move. See a vast moon. The eagle tumbles headlong. Jacob rights it again. Sees earth. A light on a mountain at sunset.

JACOB having brought me to his wish, opened his trap door in great joy and let me up; then making all fast; father says he, lie you, or sit close to the pump on that fids, whilst I work it on this; and seeing me somewhat fearful, don’t be afraid, says he, hold by the pump irons, you are as fast here as on the solid earth; then plying his handle, we rose, and away we went to the mountain’s edge; but going very swift, and observing, that whilst I sat forward, he could not come at the other handle, he called to me, to come round to his side, whilst he went on mine; but I being afraid to stir, or at least so readily as I should, and he being obliged to keep the same handle moving till I came round, we had now over-mot the mountain, and possibly might be three quarters of a mile from the level plains. The sight of this so terrified me, that I could not move a joint, every moment expecting my neck to be broken with a fall. My fear, and he not being able to quit his handle, till he could fairly come at mine, and we now being over the sea, for we flew at an immense rate, somewhat terrified Jacob; and had he been as dispirited as I was, we must both have fallen headlong into it; but keeping up his courage, so long as we were on the wing, and as he told me in no danger of falling, unless through our own faults, for want of balancing right, and still playing the pump, not much minding, as he afterwards told we, whither he went, imagining he could come the same way back again, as soon as I was well recovered from my fright, as to be able to stir round the pump, we still pushed on, till I perceived that we must be prodigiously higher than we were, and vastly above a level with the mountain, informed him of my fears; and indeed, he then too soon discovered that we were so, and began to be under a violent discomposure himself too; but it was rather a time to work, than to stand amazed in, and all the hope he had, was my coming round, that we might tack about. In less than half an hour we were out of all sight of the island, which for my own part, I then bid farewell to; but he had still hopes, till beginning to flag a little in his strength, he hinted it to me; but putting some of the leaf into his mouth, that recruited his spirits, and away we went, not knowing whither to.

Night coming on, I bewailed myself, and my poor wife terribly; till Jacob, not able to bear my reproaches, roused up his courage, and told me that he thought I should have more prudence at my years, than to despond upon such an accident, as he who could not be supposed to be endued with my prudence, was resolved to bear up against. He said, men should shew themselves such in every change of fortune, and as we were yet safe, though we were flown past our knowledge, yet we ought to struggle with every cross occurrence, till by perseverance we become conquerors.

This and much more that Jacob justly then urged, awakened me somewhat from my dejection, and feeling about, for it was then almost dark, I held by the irons, and was rising. Stand still, when you are up, says he, and move round to my place that way, whilst I this way, take yours, and let us see if we can’t fly back again. I did so, and at length he caught the opposite handle, and working at it, we imagined we were going homewards again; but it being quite dark, had we been near the island we could not have seen it; however, the imagination of being homeward bound kept us in some heart; we would willingly have flood upon the wing without motion till morning, if we could have done it, but we were not yet adepts enough at flying for that; but that the labouring oar might not altogether lie upon my son, I preferred to help him, which he, being a little fatigued, permitted me to do, and I pumped, whilst he fat down. This being unusual labour to me, I was soon tired at it, and told him so. Pray, father, says he, take some of my leaf into your mouth, and observe if it refreshes you or not. I did so, and soon told him, I perceived a very sensible alteration, for that I was not only almost tired, but very thirsty before I took it, and that then I could not say I was either; to I pumped away for some time, and then Jacob came to it again; but which way we went, no one knew, or whether we were higher or lower than before night.

After some hours working, and refreshing alternately, we became in degree familiarized to our stations, and what gave me the deepest concern was, to conjecture what my poor wife thought, when she saw us past the mountain, and ascending out of her sight; that, I judged must be a heart breaking prospect, to so good and loving a woman as she was; but then, not to know when (if ever) I would return, that reflection cut me to the heart, and held me in agitation, till the morning beginning to break upon us, I was in hopes, by the sun, to guess to what part of the compass we were fleering; but to my prodigious surprise, all around us seemed equally luminous, nor could we by any of the usual characters of the morning, read in what place the sun would shine first; we thought it had been but a short night indeed, though that we took for our fears, which had disengaged our minds from the thoughts of those transactions that we could have measured it by; but what puzzled me now excessively was, that we were in bright day-light, and then immediately law the sun, all at once, dart upon us very piercingly from the serenest sky that ever we beheld; and though we pumped ever so strong, we could not discern whether we moved either upwards, downwards, or sideways; thus we continued in vast suspense, our wings moving with half the force they did before, till upon the next alteration of the scene, we found ourselves almost in the dark again. Looking about us every way, we saw a vast moon beyond us, and at the same time the eagle wavering about, quite surprised us, and {truck us into such a terror, that the handle of the pump slipping out of my hand, as I wrought at it, and finding the machine to joggle, as if it was going to overset, I caught fail hold of the pump iron; and Jacob, who was as much terrified at the accident as myself, clinging to his feat, we were sometimes hanging at the bottom, and sometimes sideways, and in divers positions for a few moments, till the machine righting, as by meer accident, in its fall, Jacob caught hold of the handle nearest him, and set her going again. Our surprise is no ways to be imagined, and it occasioned his working but slowly at it till he recovered his spirits; the few strokes he gave, only just keeping the eagle true to the air; we were then sensible that at the height we were, there was need of nothing more to be done, than to keep ourselves steady; and we perceived, that if we ballanced right, the least motion of the wings imaginable would convey us along, so that we now floated with very little difficulty to ourselves, and after passing a long way thus, we thought we saw a small black spot, almost beneath us; and observing that it grew bigger and bigger, were in great hopes that it was our island; but approaching still nearer and nearer, we found ourselves very much mistaken, perceiving it to be the whole terraqueous globe. Now we began to rejoice indeed, and finding we had nothing else to do than without using force to raise us, only to keep ourselves steady till we descended, we waited the wished for moment of our alighting safe upon terra firma, which we did in less than an hour afterwards, just at sun set, upon a prodigious high and craggy hill, with vast precipices on each hand of us.


Run over their adventures. Sleep under the eagle’s wings much longer than a night. See no light. Thoughts of the continued darkness. Moon decreases. Descend the mountain. See strange creatures by moon-light. Hope for day. See the sun. Stays very long with them. See strange people, &c. Catch one of them. Taste their food. Does them little good, d multitude of people come to them. They take Daniel and Jacob home with them. Description of their dwellings. Their liquors. Their eatables. Strange procession. Talk of religious Signs. Dark again. Take leave of their hosts. Ascend a mountain for prospect. See no towns, or habitations. Return to the eagle.

OUR eagle no sooner touched the ground, than Jacob opened the trap door, and putting out his feet first, he raised it gently up with his hands, till he had slid himself out, and then held it up for me. We tenderly embraced each other, and immediately falling upon our knees, returned hearty thanks for our preservation; then sitting down on the mountain, and recapitulating the past passages of our journey, we could scarce believe the whole to be more than a dream; but as watching so long had made sleep very necessary for us, and our day closing in, we resolved not to descend the mountain till morning, and by consent, laid ourselves under shelter of the eagle’s wings, and slept very soundly, and very long, as we imagined; for though we were both sure we must have slept at least a full night, yet it being very dark at our awaking, we from thence concluded, that we must have slept all the next day too; and that the then present, was the second night of our residence there; so contenting ourselves under that apprehension, we turned about for another nap.

We waked a second time, after a second sound and long sleep, as we esteemed it, from the refreshment we had revived by it; but were surprised at the darkness continuing still, without the least prospect of day’s approach, and believing it might be the depth of winter, in the country we had settled upon, for we perceived ourselves very cold, I began to imagine, that the days being very short there, we might have passed them over in our sleep; and I told Jacob, that I thought it best for us to rise, and stir about till morning; for that I had heard, that in some parts of the earth, in their winter, they had but little day-light, and in some none at all for a longtime together; but then, says I, the sun was setting when we arrived, and surely that is not the last time he is ever to set in this country; so that if we keep awake and watch it, we shall certainly find it again, be the day ever so short, for it can’t be gone all at once thus.

When we arose from under the eagle’s wings, it was not so dark but we could just see the shapes and faces of each other by star-light, and a vast moon that we saw, though we could not distinguish objects far off; so we walked about, taking but very short turns, for fear of the precipices we had seen about us, at our first landing. Longing for the appearance of morning, we stirred till we were both weary again, and moon-light still continuing, we sat down, then walked again in vast perplexity; till at length, being assured that we had expected day; much longer than the continuance of any possible night, and yet that the moon had not quite passed the arch of our hemisphere, we almost despaired of ever seeing the daylight again.

The moon, which till then had comforted us, by degrees disappearing, we were in excessive fear of total darkness; but observing, that she appeared much nearer than usual, as well as larger, which caused me many reflections, I imagined, that by some accident amongst the planets, the course of the heavens was altered; and seeing no sun, or day, for more space of time than many days, and the moon to my thinking so near us, I was confirmed in my opinion, that it must be so.

We had neither tasted bit or sup, since we left the island, but how long since that might be, I could no ways guess; for tho’ we had a night or two in our first flight, I am persuaded, that several others were swallowed up in that serene brightness that surrounded us for a long time in our passage; and then, how long it was since our arrival on the earth, we could not tell: The most part of our time being so dark and only one continued moon light, far exceeding in duration the longest natural night.

However, our leaf had very well supported us, or at least preserved us, without any sensible alteration or decay, either of strength or spirits; so relinquishing the expectation of more light than we had, and the moon by this time decreasing, and being near to setting, we thought that we had better descend into the valley, to endeavour after some sustenance, whilst we had light, than to stay till the moon would afford us none, when it would be impossible to find out our way thither.

With great resolution, we therefore descended, neither seeing, or hearing the least creature, or noise, all the way we went; till coming near the level ground, where a monstrous cave gaped to our left hand, we thought we heard several shrill voices, and standing still heard them plainer, but so shrill, fine, and musical, that we doubted them to be human. Having passed a little way on the level, we saw several things pass by us, in various shapes, that we had never before observed; but though some of them seemed to go erect, yet they were very small and thin, and we could not discern their countenances, for their heads seemed quite covered with something. One of them stopt just before us, and by moon-light shone like copper; but seeing us step forward, he gave a great shriek, and fled, muttering somewhat that we did not understand. As we travelled but very slow down the descent, for fear of danger, we slept once or twice e’er we arrived at the bottom; and being now entered on the plains, from whence we could see no boundary, save that one we had come from, after some travel there, we turned to look at the prodigious height of it, when to our imagination, it shone at the top like gilding, and then we wished we had remained there, believing it to be the reflection of the sun that we saw; and light being so desirable, we had once an inclination to have returned, merely for the solace it would have afforded us; but then we suspected it might only be a collection of vapours which deceived our sight.

We wandered about this plain two days, for though our light was much the same, and we had no natural distinction of day from night, yet between ourselves, we called our waking time day, and our sleeping time night. I say, having traversed this plain about two days, we lost the moon entirely, but in lieu thereof, found what was much more grateful to us, the sight of the sun approaching; and the third day it rose up above the hills.

Its presence gave us such a flow of spirits, that we even forgot our toils and hardships. It gave us from the mountain we afterwards climbed up, a prospect of the most romantick country I had ever beheld; there were prodigious mountains, extensive plains, and immense lakes, interspersed with the vastest plantations of trees that can be imagined to lie within the compass of the eye at once; and then the air was so serene, thin and transparent, that we could see distinctly, to a distance beyond comparison to what we ever could before; and what aggravated our extasies was that we were now in hopes of not losing the sun again, for it seemed not visibly to alter its position at all.

We entered the groves of trees, and began to see several people, as we called them, and divers sorts of cattle, beasts, and birds, but far different in make, shape, and action, from what I had ever seen before. The people seemed, as I said, of a bright copper colour all over, and had hair so thick and long, as when it was juftly distributed all round their head, would almost cover their whole body; some of these we saw, juft upon the approach of light, but all that presented after the sun appeared had their hairs tied up in a great knot behind, when their bodies being disencumbered from it they shone like gold.

Having seen so many of thefs people, who only gazed at us, with little round eyes in their small faces, and none of them being any ways armed with what might offend us, we ventured to call to them; but they took no notice, by way of reply, and only moved off the faster; and indeed were so light and nimble of foot, that it would have been a vain pursuit to have followed them; at last, turning the corner of some tall bushes one day, and walking pretty fast, just at the angle, one of these men, as I call them, met me, breast to breast; he gave a shriek, and I caught him in my arms, which he would have avoided, had I not held him too fast, till perceiving it would be in vain to struggle with me, he submitted, lifting up his hands by way of craving my pity. I did not choose to seem to detain him by force, because of the fright I saw him in; nor did I care to let him run away, till I had discovered, by his means, the name and situation of his country, and who were the inhabitants. Therefore letting go my right hand, I clapped it upon his head, and stroaking his face, which was indeed very beautiful, but of too small features for my taste, in token of my love to him; I desired him to fit down, and seating myself on his left, and Jacob on his right hand, I began to examine him with words, though I suspected these to be insignificant, as they after appeared to be, and then by gestures; as to my words, he took no notice of them, but my motions he readily comprehended; when pointing to my mouth for food, to go into my stomach, and holding up my hands, as supplicating him to furnish me with some; he also pointed to some herbs, that grew about there, and then to his own mouth, speaking in his way, as idly to me, as I had done to him; for his sounds were not articulate, being mostly short, and broken aspirates, and very little variety he seemed to have, even of them.

I then made signs to him to arise, and pointing to the herbs he had before nodded at, I made a sign to him to pick and eat, which he did and gave me a parcel; I eat some too, but though they seemed to fill me, they were so light, that they afforded me no nourishment, and Jacob observed the same from them. Then I signified to him, that I would know what other things they eat, but still all were herbs; by and by an odd shapen creature, as indeed all that we had yet seen were passing by us, I pointed to that, and to my mouth; but he shook his head, and made signs of detesting to eat such things; then speaking in his way to the beast, it turned its head, and answered him in its way, and to my thinking pretty much like him.

I tried, on his recommendation, several other of his eatables, which he produced to me, in the wood I walked with him to; but though the fruits looked fresh and fair, yet they were flat and spiritless. As to my main questions of the name of the place, and the manners of the inhabitants, I could no ways make him understand my requests, and consequently, could gather no determinate answer from him; and if I could have done it, yet I believe it would have been impossible, either for me to have imitated his sound, or to have formed any letters together, to have exprefled an idea of it by.

After I had gained all the information I could expect from him, I took him by the hand, and kissing him, took my leave of him; but now I could hardly get rid of him; he would bound like a doe to the wood, and bring me samples of several fruits, and was highly delighted when I expressed satisfaction at any of them, which I frequently did, merely to gratify his good nature; and when he had done serving me, he fled over the plain, with such nimbleness as surprised me.

I told Jacob, that this country would not subsist us; for that the air was so thin and the food so light, that we should be starved here, but for his leaf, though I must say the water was as excellent as I ever tasted any where, and that if we could but have learned from the stranger, where any great town stood, we would have travelled to it, for it would be impossible to live long where we were.

Whilst we were discoursing, we saw a multitude of the same people we had been in company with before, all making towards us, from the opposite side of the plain; the sight of so many of them, though seemingly unarmed, put us into a consternation, and brought us to consult our own safety. We feared not an equal, or even somewhat superior number; but against so large a body, what could two men do? and flight would be so far from us, that it would only animate them to the pursuit, whose agility was so preferable to our own, that we must soon be overtaken: For these reasons, we determined to stand our ground, undaunted in appearance, however our hearts might be distressed: We did so, and soon were given to understand, that it was not to commit hostilities that we were so surrounded; for upon their advance to us, every one strove who should present us in the humblest manner with something that they had brought for our refreshment; all crowding to touch us but with a finger, upon which they expressed great satisfaction.

We returned due acknowledgments for their civilities, in the ways we perceived to be most suited to their capacities; and after long gazing at each other, two of the gravest of them, took each of them one of us by the hand, and led us cross the plain, to the part they came from; and parting a little wood, took us into the mouth of a large hollow under a mountain, where we walked at least half an hour, through a long and broad path way, most part of the time descending, till at last we reached a little valley, which, when we looked from the ground upwards, seemed just like the bottom of a well; the rocks and mountains rising so perpendicularly from it on every side to a prodigious height; and all round the valley, as I call it, which was it may be a furlong diameter, were holes, either natural or artificial, in which were several passages, of greater and lesser dimensions, wherein they had their residence.

They offered us of the best of every liquor, and eatable they had, though nothing that I ever eat in that country, seemed to satisfy a craving appetite, but rather excited it. There was indeed amongst their liquors, one of a charming taste, much like mead, but richer than I ever tasted any; and this suiting my gust, I drank plentifully of it, and would have drank more, but for fear of its overpowering me, though I perceived no tendency that way.

It was an inexpressible concern to me, not to be able either to understand them, or they us, lave in trivial matters. I watched their language, and the application of their sounds, as narrowly as possible; but being, as I thought, all so nearly allied, I found it would be in vain to attempt the distinction of them, though it was plain, that to each other, they were fully expressive and significant.

I made several motions to be gone, but finding it would be disagreeable to them, and not knowing whither to go to, we stayed some time with them, and gathered in one of their harvests. How they sow their corn I could not learn, nor did I stay long enough with them to see; but it grows like grass, and as thick together, looking just like our small rushes; these blades are filled with a pulp, which when so dry as to be crisp and brittle, they roll between two stones and then fitting it, it produces the lightest flower I ever saw; this they mix with water, and dry great quantities of it in the sun, in lumps of a pound, or thereabouts each, and when they want it, (as at eating their herbs) they give it a stroke with their hand, and it falls down into crumbles, which they eat by handfuls; but this food also, though it fatted them, did us but little service.

I was very desirous of informing myself, whether they had any religion amongst them, for I had observed no signs of it as yet; but one day, before I was stirring, (for we lay on a sort of mattress made of flags, and other light, and warm things) I was awakened by most prodigious shrieks from every quarter, and starting up, I ran to see what was the matter; when coming into the valley, I beheld several hundred people walking round it, in a sort of processional order, with their arms across, their heads drooping, and their hair, which before was all tied up in large knots behind, now loose and pendant, almost to the very ground, all round them; resembling to my fancy, persons in cloaks, attending a funeral, and so indeed I suspected they were; but seeing the foremost of them take into the passage by which we came to the valley, and all the rest, three by three, taking the same route; Jacob and I gently brought up the rear, wondering all the while what was to succeed.

They had no sooner got into the plain, but they all turned their faces to the sun, which was then about half buried beneath the mountain tops, at a vast distance from us, and then wringing their hands, they set up such a howling, crying, and shrieking, as made the whole plain ring; neither did one of them stir a foot from his position, or cease howling, till they had quite lost the sight of its body, which was a considerable time first; and then redoubling their outcry, (if possible) for a short time, they ceased, and returned thro’ the passage, in the same order to the valley again.

After their return, I with great difficulty made them understand, that I wanted un explanation of their proceedings, with regard to the sun, which I discovered to be the object of their ceremony; and at last, by several means attaining my purpose, one of them, as well as he could, made me sensible, that the great giver of life had left them, and as they did not know whether he would ever visit them again, they went to take leave of him, and implore his return. I pitied their ignorance, and attempted to mew them, that the sun which they had been making supplications to, was so far from being the giver of life of itself, that it was but a creature (as we were) of the great Giver of life, and Maker of the world; and would have demonstrated to them, that he was only to be beheld by the understanding, not by the bodily; eye; but I fear, that all my endeavours for their information were abortive, for I could not discern them a whit the wiper for them.

Expecting again the same continued darkness that had before seized us, which I had computed to be about the same length with their day, I remained very contentedly in the valley with them, during all that time, and had the fortune to see another procession, with its attendant orizons, offered at its first appearance in the opposite horizon; from whence, I could conclude nothing else, but that it must be one long day and night, whilst the sun made one revolution; but what could be the meaning of his being so slow in his circuit in this part of the world, more than in any other, I had yet been unacquainted with, I could no ways account for, not understanding much of astronomy.

Upon the next approach of light, I heartily thanked my benign hosts for all their favours to us, and we took our leave, not being able to learn whitherto we must go to find any great cities of inhabitants. The sun, who used to be my guide, both in England, and at the Isle of Providence, baffling all my former methods of observation; so Jacob and I got into the plain again, with several of our hosts attending us so far.

We were in great debate which way to take; but getting upon the opposite mountain, which cost us three of our whole days to ascend, and was excessively high, and being there able to see immensely far about us, without the least sign of any city or habitation, and a vast sea, or lake, being the extreme bounds of our view, we were so discouraged, that upon further consideration that night, we determined to abandon all thoughts of any future land journey, and to betake ourselves again to the eagle; which would not only be the most expeditious, but least fatiguing way we went, we might pitch upon the most likely spot to alight on.

This being concluded upon, we set out the next morning, that is, after we had slept and rested ourselves, and descending the mountain, we re-crossed the plain to the hill we first alighted upon, where we found the eagle safe, on the same spot where we had left it.


Mount the eagle. The face of the country. Are in the dark. See the sun before them. The eagle totters and terms over, yet both sit safe. Dark again. At day-light see a city. Make towards it. Are shot at. Fly over it. Daniel insisted on landing on the next earth. See land. Push for it. It is a rock. Alight. Overshoot themselves and fall into a deep pit. Their terror on hearing a voice. Jacob fears the devil. A light brought by two horrid figures. Description of them. Their discourse. Description of the cave. Eat fish. Daniel relates part of his journey. The monster’s surprise. Go to rest. Are surprised at the furniture. Their reflections.

OUR leaf, which had stood us in so much stead, and without which we could not have subsisted so long upon the we had found in this country, was now almost all consumed, though we had been as sparing of it as possible for some time, which was an additional argument to press our departure; so after we had rested, and surveyed our eagle, finding it, upon Jacob’s report, very capable of performing, we got up, and shutting our door after us, made an essay to rise, Jacob being of opinion that we might do it, though she stood upon the flat ground, till several repeated trials convinced him to the contrary.

Thus disappointed, we had a long way to fetch poles to fix it on, which gave us no small uneasiness, till Jacob spying a large stone, with my assistance, rolled it towards a little hillock like a mole hill, then drawing the eagle to it, and placing one part of the iron ring on the hillock, and the opposite part on the stone, I got in first, and then he followed and closed the door; but we now lying on one side, could not freely work the wings, till he bid me stand forward, with my legs wide, and sway first one way then the other, which raising the eagle by turns from side to side, Jacob took advantage of, and soon, with quick strokes set it on float. Being near the mountain’s edge, we were presently over the plain, upon a body of air sufficient to carry us any whither. We took the way cross the plain, and over the hill whence we had viewed the country, minding not to work too hard, but just to keep her on a level, without mounting; thus we skimmed along at a vast rate, and with so much ease, that it was amazing; yet though we had covered such a tract of land, we had not seen one habitation; but people we had at times beheld innumerable, all of whom, we supposed, had their residence in such a manner as our late hosts had; for the whole face of the country was very much broken, with prodigious risings, and as hideous depths.

Our time for the sun to set again, was not above two thirds run, so that we were out of fear of being benighted we thought; but all on a sudden, as I may say, (for it was in the space of less than an hour, from the sun’s seeming very bright, as our backs were towards it as if we were crossing a large sea) upon looking behind us, the sun was setting; and before we had got from over the water, it was dark; save that we had the moon and star light. This vexed us horribly, nor could we fathom out the meaning of it; but still went on, when thinking, by the motion, that we were sinking, I bad Jacob let me come to the handle, for that I was afraid he was tired and I give him for reason, because I thought the eagle sunk, which, I told him we must take care to prevent, till it became light again; for I had by this time changed my opinion as to the regularity of the days and nights, and took them to be quite arbitrary.

Now whether we really sunk or not, as I thought, or whether Jacob mended his stroke at the handle or not, and it raised us higher than we ought to have been, I can’t say, but so it was that when, after a long flight, which had almost spent us both with working, we first began to see the sun again, it was before us, and we out of all view and prospect of earth, or the least speck in the universe; neither was there so much as a cloud to be seen, but all pure, and serene round us.

I should now have been glad of somewhat to eat, finding myself so light, and to breath without labour; but what perplexed me most was, to think how we, who came a strait course from the sun; should now meet it before us; this seemed unaccountable to me; but we had now been so accustomed to the eagle, that we had no fear of falling, and that kept us in.

It is impossible to say how long we had upon the wing, for want of regular days and nights; but it must have been a great while, and though neither of us had slept a wink, neither of us seemed to want it. I took a mouthful of leaf now, which Jacob told me, was almost my last, for that he had not six more in his pocket; but as one would last a great while, we were in hopes to reach some place or other before it was all spent.

Jacob had plied the handle, as he thought, but slowly; upon which I told him, that I thought him in the wrong, and that unless he wrought more briskly at it, we would never see an end of our journey; for we were not sensible, whether we proceeded forwards, mounted higher, or sunk lower. I then taking the handle myself, worked at it a great while, till I felt the eagle totter, just as it did in the first flight; upon which I gave it to Jacob again, and sitting down with my back against the pump, which was my usual posture, I put both my arms under the irons, which fixed the pump to the floor. My labour had inclined me to drowsiness and I had just forgot myself, when Jacob cried out, take care father, and immediately clasping hold of the pump himself, the eagle pitched quite over, and proceeded, without ever once wagging more. We wondered at it, and especially, that in the turn, we did not seem the least likely to fall; and though we were sure we flew upon our heads, in respect to our former position, yet both Jacob stood and I sat, as little liable to fall as ever we did, and seemed to be still with our heads upwards. We considered how this was possible to happen, and many reasons passed on each side, pro and con; but it being something above our comprehension, and feeling no inconvenience from it, we rested very much contented, that it was no worse.

We now visibly perceived the eagle to sink, and therefore humoured it; for we were such proficients, that give us but daylight, we could raise or fall it at pleasure; and by proper ballancing, have floated for half an hour together, with very little motion of the wing. We had not been long turned thus, before we were in utter darkness again, which by no means suited with us; but fearing nothing, we patiently waited the return of day.

At the next dawn, when we were able to descry objects at a distance, we found ourselves near the fur face of the earth, over the water, and within a little distance of some very large sea port, and made towards it; I describing to Jacob the buildings, and pointing to the ships in the harbour, and others riding before the port.

This was a joyful sight to Jacob, who had so long fed himself upon the hopes of a prospect of this nature. Father, says he, is that England? I told him, it was much if it should; but that it might as well be that, as any other place, for ought that I as yet knew; however, I told him, we would make towards it and see; and accordingly we pushed for it; but taking notice of an high hill, just on the back of the town, and overlooking it, I bad him spring away with all his force for that hill, where we would alight, and from thence walk down to the town.

Jacob, in hopes of gratifying his old curiosity, worked at the pump with all his might, which not only drove us forward at a prodigious pace, but had raised us considerably higher than we were before, and I observed e’er we reached the city that the whole inhabitants, (who I suppose had collected together, upon the sight of us in the air) were crowding near the shore, and in the streets of the town to view us. Jacob had never seen such a sight in his days, and was mightily pleased with it; but in the height of his satisfaction, one of the ships in the harbour fired a shot at us, which went through one of our wings, (though as providence would have it, did no further damage, than making a single round hole in it;) this put us into such a confirmation, for fear of more of the like usage, that plying with all our might, we soon overshot both the town and the hill, and after the firing of abundance of small arms at us to no purpose, were safe out of their reach.

This last adventure, had so blunted the edge of Jacob’s appetite for company, and that good opinion he had conceived of the society of mankind, that he now heartily wished himself at home again; as I also did from my soul, but had not the lead hope of ever attaining it. Had I but been versed in maritime affairs sufficiently to have discovered the latitude I was in, and h ad but known that of the isle of Providence; or had we expected such a flight, and so taken a compass with us, we might still have made somewhat of it; but all was against me, my life drawn out to a great age, and myself a flying vagabond, without a home: These thoughts sunk my hopes intollerably; and now Jacob was so set against the sight of mankind, that on the least view of a town, or inhabitants, he fell to the handle, and we must soar out of their reach.

At length, being tired with this way of life, and being then floating over the sea, in sight of no land; I told him, that if he would not at all hazards promise to ground me at the next spot we came to, be it where it would, I was resolved to cast myself from the eagle, and finish at once a miserable life, too unhappy to be longer sustained with comfort, in the way we were in. These words drew tears into Jacob’s eyes; Dear father, says he, don’t break my heart, and render my condition still more wretched, by your displeasure to me; be easy, and I promise you to set you upon the first ground we see, which for your sake I hope will not be far off.

I was constrained to return him some comfortable answer, to dissipate his dejection, and in the evening, we both imagined we saw land: This gave us great pleasure, but the fear of night coming upon us before we reached it, sunk us again. I would not for all the world have missed the opportunity of alighting, by overshooting it in the dark; and, as the fool thinks himself a better judge than the wife man, in matters of gratification to himself; so I thought, that Jacob’s strength, (tho’ of twice the force of my own,) would not carry us so soon thither as mine; I therefore took from him the handle, and toiling till I sweat, could not, at last, but think it in better hands before; so I resigned my post, and he shooting away, like an arrow out of a bow, we in very good time made out point.

We had light enough left, to see that what we had pleased ourselves with as land, was only a long ledge of rocks, broken and very craggy, running a great way in length, but not very broad, and made up of several distinct pieces of stone, at least towards the top, so far as we could see; for the sea flowed in between, and through them, in many parts.

This land, as we expected it to be, proving so discommodious, I told Jacob, I was sorry we had fallen upon so barren a spot, and that I thought it would be only losing time to stop there; and that we had better go in quest of a more agreeable country, which perhaps we might see by morning. Father, says Jacob, I should be glad to concur with you, but must beg you to alter your resolution; for on your anger and uneasiness, I then made a vow to myself, that I would stop at the first place I could set a foot on, though the devil himself should oppose me; so must beg of you to rest here. Well, says I, Jacob, I will not cause a breach of your vow, though we depart again in the morning, set me down where you think convenient.

Jacob thanked me, and seeing a flat, (as there was very few of them) big enough, as he judged for our purpose, just before which was a monstrous deep, but narrow precipice, though we did not apprehend it to be so deep as it was, he endeavouring to lower the eagle upon that flat, but over-shooting it, we both fell perpendicularly down the precipice, as we sat upon the eagle: The rustling of the fall, and the scratching of the ribs of the wings against the stone all the way, made the most dismal din that ever I heard; and the resistance they made against the sides of the precipice, retarding our fall, made us suspect that we should never reach the bottom; but our fall was by that means so broken, that we neither of us received more harm by it, than what the fright gave us.

It being night, and the cavity of astonishing depth, it was as dark as pitch at the bottom; to which we were no sooner arrived, but we heard a loud articulate voice roar out, and say something, though at the distance we were from it, and by reason of the vast hollow wherein it was confined, we could not tell what; our hairs at this, stood erect upon our heads, and Jacob’s vow immediately staring him in the face; O father, says he, this is the devil, that I so rashly dared to oppose my landing, and immediately he fell to his prayers; I was no less confounded, when I heard it again, roar out in the same articulate sound, to my thinking as before, syllable for syllable; and though I understood it not, it made a prodigious impression upon me. We were both mute and still, neither stirring hand or foot; till upon the third repetition of the same sound, as I was then sure it was; and thinking with myself, if any person was near, and heard us fall, the most natural thing that they could ask was, who was there? and judging this voice might mean so, I replied here are only two honest travellers, who by misfortune are fallen into this pit. How? says the voice, (for then I perceived it to be nearer to us) are you Englishmen? We are, says I, and humbly beg your kind assistance, whoever you are, for you seem by your speech, to be our countryman. Stay where you are, says the voice, till I come, and you shall be assisted. Then the voice calling out aloud, Calipse, Calipse, with a sound that made the vault echo, we heard a softer voice say, I am coming; and presently a light appearing at a distance, moved towards us.

We could plainly discern, that we were at the mouth of a vast cavern, and that the light, which seemed to be brought up by a naked woman, had turned into a sort of door-way in the wall of it, when all continued dark for the space of about two minutes; and then, the light returning, we saw confusedly by it, the shape of an elderly man, with short, bushy hair, coming towards us, with the woman; but surely two such figures, when they were so nigh as to be discerned, were never beheld before; they bore the exact resemblance of the human species in their erect posture and limbs, save their mouths were as broad as their whole faces, and had very little chins; their arms seemed all bone, and very thin, their hands had very long fingers, and webbed between, with long claws on them, and their feet were just the same, with very little heel; their legs and thighs long and strait, with strong scales on them, and the other parts of their bodies were exactly human, but covered with the same hair as a seal.

The man, in a very friendly manner, asked who we were, and from whence we came? We told him Englishmen, and that our alighting here was merely accidental. Were you shipwrecked, says he? I told him, no, we came in the air. Came in the air, says he? You are in my power, don’t imagine I will be imposed upon: How came you hither, I say? I assured him, that we had been weeks in the air, upon a machine of our own contrivance, and that in trying to settle upon the rock, we had overreached ourselves and fallen in here; and that the thing he then saw us standing upon was our machine, which having fallen in with us, by breaking our fall, had saved our lives; this I pronouncing with so great an air of sincerity, he believed, and desired us to walk in, and he would take care of us; but poor Jacob who could not all this while but think it was the devil, was scarce to be prevailed upon by any entreaties to quit his post.

I own, that to judge by appearances only, myself, or any one else, would have suspected him to be in the right; but yet, having no other choice, and being satisfied that if it should be so, he wanted not means to compel us; I thought it better to comply with a good grace, than to suffer abuse by a refusal; I stepped off the machine, and went to him, which Jacob observing, and that I received no instant mischief, followed me.

The woman led the way with her light, which I then perceived to be a lamp, made of the shell of some sea fish, with a thick wick, giving a very strong but smoaky glare. The man took me by the hand, his being damp and cold like ice, and led me, and Jacob followed us. We were conducted into a large dark room in the side of the rock, where was a bench, made of a rough ship’s plank, and another broad board, one end of which was thrust into a chink in the rock, the other standing out about two yards into the room, and which, by the woman’s setting the lamp upon it, I supposed to be their table.

The first thing the man said when we were seated was, to enquire how we would be treated, and what we had occasion for I told him, we were at present in most want of food, having had none all the time of our flight. Are not you men? says he. Surely, says I. Then why wilt you offer to deceive me, says, he? Am not I, think you, a competent judge of man’s capacity? Do I not know that human nature cannot support under a fast, for so long as you assure me you have been in flight? If that be not false; for you would by this latter assertion, induce me to suspect the truth of your former.

I perceiving that he gave no credit to me, could attempt no surer means of obtaining his confidence, than by explaining the original method of our flight, and also revealing the means by which we had endured under so long a restraint from food; so I told him my original story, and the ingenuity of my son Jacob, in contriving the machine; how we were unexpectedly carried out of our knowledge, and all that had befallen us since; with Jacob’s having accidentally discovered an herb, which preserved in the mouth, would prevent both hunger and thirst; and told him, that by reason of our long absence from home, it being now very near exhausted, how happy we esteemed ourselves, in being providentially conducted to his habitation, from whose humanity we had hopes of a supply.

He lifted up his hands and eyes; Great Father, says he, what have I heard? And hath all this been done by a worm! A creature seemingly pinned down to the earth, whole natural bulk, and tendency to the center, should render such attempts a violence to nature? But who can discern the methods of thy providence? And am I, poor miserable, creature, the first of thy innumerable beings upon this earth, that am I to be informed by a special messenger of our neighbor world, which I have so often contemplated, and have been amazed at? Am I, I say, the first, to whom the truth of that, new world hath been discovered? And am I now in conversation with an inhabitant of it, (as I may say) one who hath arrived from thence, and is capable of demonstrating, that all our human wisdom is not founded barely upon suppositions, and possibilities only? But, sir, says he, I detain you from what will be of more immediate service to you, than my reflections upon your travels; then going, to the door, he called Calipse, and ordered her to bring some food and water, with both which she soon returned, and set them upon the table; I then desired to know, if he had any fire, or any thing to boil them in? (for they were dried fish.) He said, that he perceived what I meant, from a remembrance he had of the methods his father used before he eat them; but told me, that he and his family always eat them raw, either as they came from the sea, or as they were dried, for they had a natural antipathy to sodden meats; but he said, he believed he had some instruments by him for my purpose, which his father and mother, when living, dressed their fish in. I told him, that our stomachs seemed at present rather too keen, to want either the incentives of dressing or sauce, and that we would try how we could behave without cither; but that if it should be our fortune to make any stay with him, we should be obliged to him for the use of the things he had mentioned.

We then pulled out our knives, and to it we went, rather devouring the fish than eating it; neither did we at first reflect either on smell, taste, or the gratification of any particular sense, they had all so great an interest in the repast; but beginning to slacken in our pace, and to feed more moderately, I had time to wonder, how it was possible for their dried fish to be so juicy and tender, and made bold to ask the question; at the same time, assuring the old gentleman, that all I had ever before seen had required length of time to soak and soften before it was fit for the teeth to mandicate; he said, his method of curing them was, only drying them in the sun, first drawing their entrails through the gills, which when done, he piled them on heaps in some dry part of the cave.

Having compleated our meal, and washed it down with a delicious draught of water, we returned our compliments of thanks to our generous benefactor, who, from the frequent expressions of his tenderness and concern for us, had rendered himself far less shocking to us, than at first he seemed to be.

He told us, after our meal, that he made no great doubt of our desire for rest, after so long a fatigue as we had undergone; so that if we pleased, he would shew us our lodging, and leave us for that night, and that if we chose it, we should have a lamp burning by us; we told him, that would be very acceptable, and following him, he conducted us into a small room, where to our great surprise, was a wooden bedstead, with bedding upon it, two chairs, a table, and a pocket glass lying on it, with a little cabinet standing on the table; there he left us, wishing us a good repose.

When the old man was departed, Jacob and I were under greater perplexity than before, at the sight of all this order and regularity. Look you father, says Jacob, don’t you now believe, that this creature who talks like a man, is no less than the devil Himself? Why you know, and have told me, that he wheedles and tempts people by a prospect of riches and fine things, till he has seduced their hearts from their maker, and then he seizes upon them for his own property. Now don’t you think these things, this good bed and conveniencies, which we could never have expected here, are a snare to entice us to love him?

I was unwilling to encourage Jacob in his way of thinking, but yet, could scarce with a safe conscience deny his argument; for I had myself heard of many tricks, shapes, and transformations of the devil in old stories; and as for the place we seemed to be in, none appeared to me to be more proper for his exercises; but yet, I say, not to encourage Jacob in his way of thinking, I told him, that we ought not to dispraise the bridge we had come safely over; for we had been entertained in a friendly manner, and ought not to suspect our host of ill designs till we found him guilty; therefore we ought to be upon our guard that he drew us into no sin; and then, I was in hopes, though he should prove the devil, he would have no power over us. Thus having administered the most comfort to Jacob and myself, that I could, we both laid ourselves down in our cloaths, and slept most sweetly till morning, waking much refreshed and lively.


Their surprise next morning Get several utensils. Daniel views the rock with the monster. Relates his journey. Other discourse on his travels. Monster very learned. Satisfies Daniel he had been in the moon. Monster gives account of his parents. Their being cast upon that rock. What his nature is. Laments his deformity. Daniel comforts him.

IN the morning, whilst we were both awake, and lay musing on what was to follow, comes our host, the old man, to see how we did, and if we wanted any thing. Jacob, who saw him first, slunk down under the rug which we had covered us with, but with such eagerness and commotion, that I opened my eyes to discover what ailed him, when I espied the old man close by the bedside; I was not without my fears, but I bid him good morrow. O, says he, good morrow, how have you rested? I assured him never better, and that now we would get up; so throwing off the rug, we arose. He then bidding us take up our lamp and follow him, we went cross the great arch into another room, where he shewed us abundance of kitchen utensils, which he told us were his father’s; for, says he, he was just such a man as you are, and made constant use of them.

I had a month’s mind to have then asked him, how he and his family came to be so mishapen; but fearing it might affront him, I judged it better to be silent, at least till we had been longer acquainted; so desiring I might have the use of a large sauce-pan, a frying-pan, a grid-iron, two or three plates and dishes, and a copper pot; he bid me to take them, or any thing else I would find useful to me; then, having loaded Jacob with what I supposed we should want, we retired.

Having made another good meal of the dried fish, I sat Jacob, (who was now much better reconciled to the old man, from his courteous behaviour to us) to clean the kitchen utensils, whilst the old man and I went out into the air; for I told him, I had been so much used to free breathing, that I could very ill bear confinement in so close a place. He shewed me a way round the side of the rock, and told me, if I had any inclination to take a prospect, he would accompany me to the top of it, which offer I readily accepted.

I perceived that we were not more than five yards above the level of the sea, at the mouth of the cave, but there were so many turnings and windings to the water, that it might be near two hundred paces to the edge of the rock, before we came to the ocean. We first went thither, that being the place, he told me, his father had landed at, when he was cast upon the rock; then returning back again some paces, we entered into a narrow cliff in the stone, to which the light came in at a vast height above us, (as it did wherever we walked at the bottom, for wherever there was a passage at the bottom, the rock seemed to be spilt, or cut quite up to the top, except in the cavern) having gone some way in this passage, we gradually ascended round several pieces of entire stone; at the bottom of which we could both see and hear the water dashing; and often being obliged to step over broad chinks, which were very frightful to behold; we at last arrived at the height of the rock; but such a broken and confused prospect surely was never seen, and all around was nothing but water.

I was in hopes I might have espied some land, but could see nothing like it, nor had I the least view of ever quitting my present abode; for I did not doubt, but that the eagle was too much spoiled by the fall, ever to be repaired again, in a place so dedicate of supplies as we were in. The old man observing me to be thoughtful, desired me to sit down in the shade, (the sun shining very hot} and said, he waited with great impatience, for a further account of my life and travels.

I touched but lightly over the cause of my leaving England, or any other occurrence, till I got on shore in the Isle of Providence; but enlarged much more fully on my transactions there: I told the old man, that the person we left behind was my son, and that I having instructed him in the smith’s business, his invention was so pregnant, as to form the machine on which we had flown to his rock, and to which he had given the name of his eagle.

I long to examine it, says he, and see how he has contrived it, capable of conveying two human bodies in the air. But pray, says he, how came you to venture to fly to such a distance as the country you mentioned last night? I told him, that when we were out of sight of land, we were obliged to go on, over the surface of the sea, and that then the day closing upon us in our flight, by the time that the morning light appeared, we could neither see sea or land; so that not knowing whither we went, but still going on, we travelled a long time together in pure day with the sun always up, till we settled at last, as I told him before, on the great mountain at sun set.

My companion then asked me, how long we continued in this flight? I told him, it was impossible to form any just computation of that; because that after one night passed, we never had any more, though several might have passed in the time, which was what we greatly wondered at. Nothing so easy to be accounted for, says he, why had you not lost sight of the earth? I told him, we had lost sight of every thing but the sun; then what, says he, should obstruct the sun’s continual shine upon you, when you saw nothing else to intervene? I told him we saw the earth again, long before we reached it, or lost the sun. True, says he, but not our earth. Our earth, said I? Why pray what other earth is there but our earth? Perhaps you think this rock is all the earth there is. No, no, says he, you are mistaken; I know the several regions of the earth, and how, and into what kingdoms it is divided, though I have been so unhappy as to spend my life in this lonesome manner; but yet, I tell you, you alighted not on this earth; that is, this habitable world, compounded of earth, and water, containing Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. It is true, says I, that we knew not on which quarter we settled; but that it was in some part of one of them is undeniably certain. I perceive, says he, you are but a shallow astronomer. Say, how long did you tell me your first night was in that country! That, says I, is impossible to say, because it being so much longer than a common night, we had no fixed term to measure by. Was it three days long, says he? I replied, it must be more than that; for to the best of my judgment, we lay still as long, expecting day, before we rose to look about us. Was it a week, said he? I replied that I believed it was more. Was it a fortnight, said he? Truly, says I, it might, for ought I know; but why are you so inquisitive about that? Because, says he, much depends upon it; and I think, says he, your day, when it returned, was as long as your night had been. I told him, to the best of my conjecture it was. Then, says he, you have been where never man was before. You have been in the moon; and what confirms me in it is, that if I remember right, you told me, you thought once that you were falling, and actually turned over. It is most certain we did so, says I; that circumstance, says he, accounts to me for the whole; besides what you have said of the inhabitants, the plants, the air, and all the rest; I could not for my life conceive, why being ready to fall, but recovering, would be any indication of our having been in the moon, and told him how unreasonable I thought it was in him, from thence to draw such a conclusion. Come, says he, I’ll satisfy you of it. Don’t you think that the great body of the earth will obstruct the light of the sun, so far as the shadow of the earth’s body will extend; that is, so long as you, at any given distance, can be sensible of the earth’s body lying between you and the sun? Yes surely, says I, the earth will then darken, and hide the sun from me. Well, says he, but if you are so far off, as not to be sensible of the interposition of the earth, what will then be the consequence? Then, says I, I shall see the sun only. Why, that was your very case, says he, when you came to that distance; and from that time, till you arrived on the mountains in the moon, it was day-light. I told him, I had not thought so deeply of it, but it seemed very plain. Then, says he, you say you arrived at sun set, and had a fortnight’s night; what can that be, but arriving at the dark half of the moon, with whole inhabitants, a month is but a natural day? Believe me, says he, you have been there, however you got thither, or returned. Again, says he, don’t you know that the earth attracts all bodies within such distance to it? I said, I had heard so; and so does the moon, replied he; and when you came within her attractive force, if you had not turned round, and sunk regularly downwards to her, you must have seemed to fall headlong all the way. I stood in amaze at his discourse, and asked him, how it was possible for one who lived so recluse from all the world, to have obtained so much knowledge in these things (for that he did not seem to be very old, and that most sciences that I had ever heard of, had been brought to perfection not by one man, but by the accumulated observations of man). He told me, he would not have me attribute his knowledge to his own peculiar industry or observation; but to the indulgent care that a learned parent took in his education. I said, he had several times mentioned his father to me, and that I would be extremely glad, if he would discover to me who he was.

He then told me, that his father’s name was Miles Anderson, that he had had a publick education in the university of Oxford in England, and was generally reckoned to have attained to great perfection in most of the liberal sciences, that about his fortieth year, he married a rich heiress, hoping thereby, to have at one stroke compleated his fortune; but her substance being all in her guardian’s hands, an alderman of London, who refused to pay it before it could be recovered by law, the guardian failed, and his father lost every penny of his wife’s portion. He said, that his father’s learning had acquired him many friends, though he had but small substance of his own, who, in a short time procured him a government of one of the new forts the English had erected on the coast of Africa. I have heard him often mention with tears in his eyes, says he, the parting from his friends in England with my mother, then a young and beautiful woman, for a situation so detached from all his former acquaintance, and so contrary to his natural contemplative and studious genius; but, as he used to say, necessity had no law.

My father, says he, told me, that in south latitude, fifteen degrees, he met with a violent tempest at north west, which lying upon them for many days, drove them out of all way, and obliged them to cut their masts by the board, and in the violence of it, he said, that they were thrown upon this rock, at the western end, where the ship was beaten to pieces, but the boat saved, with only seven hands, who had escaped hither in her, besides himself and my mother. He told me, they at times got most of his goods out of the wreck, and searching for shelter, at length found the cave he lived in. That they all dwelt together for near a year, till the provisions growing short, which they had taken from the ship, the mariners determined to quit the rock in the boat, which they had fitted up as well as they could, with materials saved from the wreck, and seek their fortunes. They would have had my father to have ventured with them; but he, who tenderly loved my mother, and for that reason was fearful of her safety, refused; but made them all take an oath, that in case they would ever be so fortunate as to reach any port, they would not fail to send some ship to his relief; but he always believed, he said, that they perished at sea, having never heard any thing from them.

It was not long, he said, after their departure, before his provisions were near spent, and he and my mother were reduced to short allowance, when no tongue could paint the misery he daily suffered on her account, more than on his own. They then daily went to different parts of the rock, to try for fish to support nature, and were frequently so happy as to take some.

Soon after this, my mother proving with child, that again threw my father into great melancholy, to think of producing an infant to be partaker of his calamity; but as they had now gotten into the method of taking fish, by several devices they had found out to entrap them with, they were the easier for it; at length, my mother’s time came, when she was delivered or my felt and my sister, or my wife, which you please to call her, whom you law last night, for she is both to me; but how great was his confusion at the sight of two such misshapen and unaccountable creatures as we are. I have heard him often say, that he had a great mind to have made away with us both, and for that purpose, had once actually cast us both into the sea; but to his great surprise, we both swimming to the shore with all imaginable facility, his heart relented towards us, and taking us up in his arms, he returned us to my mother again.

My mother always, for her part, says he, being exceeding fond of us, and attributing our misfortune to a fright, which she told my father she had one day received from a sea monster, while she was fishing, by degrees, induced my father to change his detestation into regard for us too; and he observing, as we grew older, that a human understanding was couched under our bestial form, used every method, as our capacities enlarged, of improving them in some useful knowledge, which he hath often told me, answered his trouble, far beyond any thing that he had ever observed in a real man before; so that the pleasure he took in improving us, arose proportionably to our readiness in receiving it; and, having nothing else to do, most of his time was spent that way. He taught us geography, mathematicks, astronomy, geometry, divinity, and arithmetick in theory; all which, save arithmetick, I was a perfect master of at fifteen years of age; and as his own knowledge was so very extensive, had he lived longer, (for he died in my sixteenth year) he would undoubtedly have instructed me much further.

Whilst he lived, my time was so taken up in the above exercises of art, that I had little left to pursue nature in; but what time I had was spent in the water, where my sister and I caught fish for the family; and on my father’s death, nature still creeping more and more upon us, we were but little with my mother in the rock, but mostly out at sea; where having more knowledge of things than the brutes, our companions there, we would contemplate on the works of the great Creator in the deeps, and praise him for our reason and understanding; but then upon our return to land, and viewing our own deformity, in regard to the rest of the reasonable creation, we would cry and bemoan our misfortune, in not being capable of exerting our senses among men, without shocking and confounding them, by the view of our bodily parts.

As for my mother, who lived about four years after my father, she grew excessive melancholy, spending most of her moments in the little room you lay in last night, and at the end of that time died, being wasted away to a mere skeleton before her decease.

Soon after my mother’s death, my sister and I finding ourselves alone, and for ever like to be so, thought it no ways unlawful to indulge our natural appetites together; for having expectations, that the issues of our loves would prove similar to ourselves, they knowing no better than that all the world were like us, (if we did not undeceive them) would be happy in their own contentment, being after our deaths always capable of providing for themselves as well as we could; for, says he, though we are men in faculties, our nature is bestial, nor can we bear, or ever could bear to eat of dressed meat, as my father and mother did; for food has no relish to us, unless raw.

Now pray friend, says he to me, what is your opinion of our condition? You are a by-stander, and can judge impartially; should you imagine yourself better or worse for our capacities or our present forms? I could not readily give an answer to him, but on some silent reflection, I told him, (though I own my view to gratify him, out-ran my judgement) that I took the body, and the mind, or soul, to be two distinct things; this to be enduring, that perishable; and as human faculties were the distinguishing mark of a reasonable soul, which was the perfectest and most remaining substance, I was of the opinion that the benefit redounding from that, of being capable to know and praise one’s maker, and thereby secure to one’s self a blessed immortality, was preferable to the most exact proportion of bodily parts, which in few years must necessarily crumble to earth; neither was he at all to think unworthily of those parts, be they ever so deformed, which his maker had pleased to endue with such a soul; for (as he knew what was best and fittest to be done,) had he not judged the body of sufficient dignity, he would never have placed so rich a jewel as the soul in it; and why might not all have been made like you, says I? There is no reason but the divine will for it; and had we been so, we should none of us have found fault with it, but have enjoyed ourselves with equal satisfaction as we do now; then this uneasiness of yours is but comparative, for I doubt not, when you are upon your natural and proper function, but you find yourself entirely adapted to it. And again, suppose you had been like me, could you have supplied the wants, or sustained the horrors of this lonesome habitation with equal pleasure, as you now can? If not, how happy are you in your present form? Wholly applicable to the life designed for you? And I see no reason, but having been a meer man, you should (in this retirement) have lamented your misfortune, of not having parts and capacities, proper for the lot you was fallen into.

I could perceive, by the satisfaction of the old man’s countenance, the delight my discourse had given his mind; and he told me, I had said nothing but what he had before reflected upon, though, as he thought, with partiality; but since he observed in me the very same notions as in himself, he should from henceforth rest much better contented with his circumstances, and instead of being uneasy, rejoice at the bounty of his merciful Creator, for what he was; and heartily thanked me, for the settled peace I had brought to his mind.


Reasoning between Daniel and the monster. Sbews Daniel his children. Daniel makes salt. Find the eagle salt. Shew it and its use to the monster. Monsters catch an oil-fish. Manner of making oil. Views the contents of a cabinet. The monster makes him presents out of it. Finds a manuscript of the monster’s mother’s, containing her history and that of the monster’s generation. Afraid to inform him of it. Forms a project to leave him. Perfects it.

WE thought it now high time to return, for I began to be fearful, that Jacob missing me so long, would be uneasy. In my way, he shewed me the sea rolling in, in hundreds of places through the cuts of the rock, and told me, what a prodigious quantity of fish they contained; but with this reflection, that he was betraying the security of his own species to me, which he ought not to injure, but for the necessity of his own food and support.

Observing that my making so light of what he called his misfortune, and rather attributing it to the bountiful dispensation of providence to him, in his present situation, than to the frown and neglect of his Maker, was so pleasing to him, I took him up short, for what he had said, and told him, that the human faculties he was endued with, carrying in them such stamps of a divine nature in him, as well as animal, and being an excellency so far above the best pan of the brute creation, I thought him to blame, for ever mentioning himself in the worst light that he might be beheld in; and advised him, from thenceforth to look upon himself as one of the most reasonable creatures in the creation, but somewhat only diversified in parts from others of them; which he promised me he would do, telling me, that he really beheld his condition in a much more eligible light since his discourse with me.

I told him as we went, that he had mentioned the woman I had seen as his wife, and inquired if he had had any children by her? He said, Several. I then asked, whether they were still living? He said, yes, they were at home, but he had been under some debate with himself, (as they had very yet seen creatures as me and my son) whether he had not best keep them from the sight of us, lest we would give them some occasion to despise their own imperfections, and asked me my opinion of it. I told him, it was not one of the least of blessings, that no creature was capable of the sense of greater perfection, than what it could collect from its own species, not being able to form a true notion of any different being from itself; and though I allowed, that the loss of a part of what they saw in a being of their own kind, might be sensibly felt by them; yet the want of what they perceived in a being of another kind, could not affect them, as being in their own kind perfect; but lest any thing like what he suspected would ensue, I advised him, before them, to condemn every part in us, which could cause a distinction from them; and that I would equally commend all such parts in them above my own; which behaviour, would not fail to set themselves, in their own imaginations, above a par with us. I further told him, that had he never seen his father or mother, or any other man till he saw us, himself would naturally have been of the same opinion, that I would inculcate into his children. He smiled, and said, he could not be positive but it might have proved so in that case, though now it was otherwise; and he believed his dislike to himself, might in great measure be owing to the constant concern his father and mother used to express for his being so unlike them.

When we returned, he carried me a great way further under the rock, into a vast cave, where were at least thirty other persons like himself, and also his wife, whom I had seen last night; these, he told me, were all his children, and observing them to be surprised at the sight of me, (taking my cloaths for a part of my body) and endeavour at avoiding me, he called them to him, which with seeming reluctance they obeyed; he then told them, that he had caught an odd sort of a creature, in some respects like themselves, but not so perfect, and desired them to examine me, and report how they liked me, which they did, and finding me very gentle, they were not afraid to handle me; when one of them remarked what an odd skin I had; another said, he could not think how I could swim, or catch fish, with such poor hands as I had, whilst a third condemned my limbs as monstrous clumsey; but not one amongst them seemed to commend me for any thing superior to themselves. This gave the old man great pleasure, and me a peculiar satisfaction, for fear that a contrary behaviour in them might have made me less acceptable to him: But being now cleared of those fears, we lived very agreeably together in common.

Jacob, having now cleansed all our utensils, and brought them to be fit for use, I had a great mind to be trying them, and one of the young creatures having caught some fish, he gave me one, much more than Jacob and I could eat; we cut it in pieces, and boiling it in salt water, it gave it some relish, as I expected it would, but made it very disagreeable to our stomachs, when it was down; for we were both sick with it all the rest of the day. I was well assured, that as we had neither salt, or other sauce, our fish would be very insipid, only boiled in fresh water; but the next day we tried that, when though we were not sick, it was so tasteless, that we had no satisfaction from it.

The day following, taking Jacob with me over the edges of the rocks, close by the water, I searched for some shallow hollow, in the extreamest heat of the sun, where upon scooping in sea water, the sun would soonest evaporate it; and by several times filling it, and drying away, we perceived a scurf to settle at bottom, and in the end got small quantities of tolerable salt, which was a great refreshment to us, and quickened our fish prodigiously; we had great abundance of water plants, towards the lower parts of the rock, which the family eat raw, but we boiled, and found very wholesome.

We had now been here three days, before Jacob, who had been under deep concern all the time for the loss of his eagle, not doubting but that it was become wholly useless by its fall, could venture to take courage and examine it, lest what he so much dreaded, should prove but too true; nor would he have attempted it then, I believe, had not the old man pressed for a view of its contrivance. We all went down to it, but the tender ends of the iron ribs being pressed into too narrow a compass between the sides of the rock, it was immoveable for some time; till Jacob easing one side, and raising that almost upright, got under it, and bearing the floor on his back, by our assistance to guide it, we brought it into the cavern, where it was broad and high enough to do as we pleased with it; then taking a lamp, the old man viewed it, and called all the young ones round him, to be spectators of it likewise.

Jacob spent the best part of the time they were satisfying their curiosity, in examining each rib, and the treddles beneath them, the callicoe and floor; and finding every thing safe, so far as he could yet discover, could not help demonstrating his sense of the joy it gave him, by outward signs and gestures. Father, says he, I don’t find the least thing amiss in it, it will do again, I am satisfied, as well as ever. The old man hearing this, nothing less would content him, than to see it move. I was willing to gratify him, being so very desirous of it, and ordered Jacob to try it, as there was room enough, just to take a few strokes; but Jacob declined it, lest there would not be air sufficient in that close place; however, our host’s importunity prevailed, and having got somewhat just to elevate it to a proper height for the wings to play, Jacob got up, and raised it; when at the first stroke or two of the wings, the young crew ran away terrified, but the old one stood it.

We had several lamps in our hands to view it by, but the first stroke put them all out, and the second and third being repeated very quick, we were scarce able to keep our legs, the wind it forced upon us being so very great; and that being reverberated by the walls of the cavern, and returned again by the next stroke, caused such an eddy, that we tottered about like drunken men; but our lamps not being able to resist such a force of air, and being all out, the old man could not see it move, or otherwise discover that it had so done, but by finding it at the further end of the cavern, at the approach of light. He then examining the under side, presently saw how it operated, and was contented, and Jacob forthwith went to work to take it to pieces, and lay it up, till a proper opportunity might offer, to make further use of it.

About a week after we had been there, eight of the young cubbs brought in an oil fish, and a great outcry there was for help to land it, when the whole posse ran with incredible violence to the shore. Jacob and I were sauntering about, and hearing the noise, ran likewise to see what was the matter; when we observed some in the water and some out, hawling with all their force a large fish on shore. The creature must have been at least ten feet in length, and proportionably thick, and offered great resistance; but they fixing their claws into his body in divers places, he became unable to struggle, while they pulled him out; then two of them taking a vast stone, which I found lay ready for that purpose, and letting it fall with all their force upon its head, they soon dispatched it; which was no sooner done, than fixing their claws into its skin, they drew it up to a receptacle, purposely for that use in the cavern. When all was quiet again, I asked the old man, what they could do with that vast creature, it being more than they could eat while sweet? he said, they never eat that fish, but got oil from it for their lamps; and informed me, at my request, of the simple manner of obtaining it. He said, that with their talons they pierced its skin full of holes on both sides, then leaving it in the place I saw them deposite it in, they laid a long board upon it, and placing vast weights of stone thereon, as the fish decayed, the oil would sweat out at those holes, till it left the body like a dry crust, which, they afterwards burnt. I was mightily pleased with this simple sort of process, having several times wondered how they obtained all the vast quantities of oil they consumed; but when I had heard this, and afterwards was witness to the produce of that one fish, my amazement ceased; that fish yielding at least three kilderkins: and I observed that the wick they burnt in their lamps, was the spongy stem of a water plant, not unlike our bulrush.

Having got salt, Jacob and I lived tolerably well, for we had the finest water that could be drank, being a perpetual distilling from the rock, into a little gutter thro’ the cavern, from whence it run into the sea; but being minded to vary the dressing a little, I watched for the next oilfish that was caught, and when the oil first began to dripple out, I set something to catch it, and got about a quart, which smelling very fresh and sweet, I fried some fish in it; this proved the greatest delicacy that we had tasted for a long time, nor could any dripping, or butter come up to it. So that the next fish that was taken I got abundance more of it, which I bottled up, in some bottles I found in a case, amongst my landlord’s father’s goods, which I had free recourse to.

After about two months stay in the place, I did not think it so irksome; for having provision of herbs, and fish in plenty, and the old man being a most agreeable companion, I was very well reconciled to his shape by this time.

I had often wondered, what could be in the cabinet which stood upon the table; but finding it to be locked, I never aimed at opening it; I believe it might be about two foot long, half the depth, and about two thirds of the height of two feet. Wanting many times to see the inside, I at last, after we had been there above a twelve-month, asked the old man, if he had ever seen the inside of that, for I supposed it to be some of his father’s old furniture. He said he had seen it open many times, and that after his father’s death, his mother was always writing at it, and he was sure there was a key somewhere in the room, unless it would happen to have been thrown into the sea with his dead mother. My curiosity prompting me, I searched very diligently about the room, to discover the key, but could not; at last, lifting up the featherbed, for I would leave no place untried, I spyed a little pocket book, which opening, and feeling in its folds, I found it.

I unlocked it in the old man’s presence, and lifting up the lid, I perceived a flap to let down before, like a desk, which discovered within it several drawers; in some of the uppermost of these, I found several women’s trinkets and utensils, and descending lower, I found a watch and seal, and some rings, with a few other jewels; but pulling out the bottom drawer, which was of the whole length of the cabinet, I found it full of pens and paper only, with an ink stand, which had been long dry and useless.

I told the old man, that this drawer consisting only of papers, he might not possibly choose to have them scrutinized by any one but himself; but he told me, they were entirely useless to him, and that if I could make any thing of them, or do any thing with them, they were at my service, for that himself could neither write or read. How? says I, not write or read. How was it possible for your father to give you so much knowledge, as you are master of, without writing or reading? He told me that once he could have read a little, but after repeated attempts to write, his hands not being capable of managing a pen, he had neglected his reading also, till he had quite forgot it.

The old man having so liberally bestowed his papers on me, I did not then take any trouble to examine them, being sensible I should have leisure time enough for that hereafter; so asking him, if he would not do something with the watch and jewels, he told me no; as for the watch and rings, he had often seen them, and the use his mother put them to; but their make had rendered such things of no service to them; for the rings would not go over their webbed fingers, or the watch hang to their scales; so that if I pleased I might have them all. I thanked him, but told him, I was afraid I should have no more use for them than himself; so having locked up the cabinet and pocketed the key we parted.

It was not till a long time after that I rumaged the cabinet again, when to my unspeakable comfort, I found a small bible, neatly bound, with silver clasps; I kissed it over and over, and would not have parted with it for the world. Thou, says I, wilt be my comfort, when nothing else will. I read a chapter or two in it, and then laying it down, I proceeded to search the writings; and under several loose papers, and a whole quire or two, I met with a sort of manuscript, neatly wrote, and sewed together: Upon taking it into my hand, I saw something wrote on the back side, which upon reading, was as follows.

Reader whoever thou art, if ever this little book should fall into the hands of a man lay it not aside, till thou hast added a tear to the millions its author shed at writing it.

This odd introduction raised my impatience to peruse the contents, where to my astonishment, I met with the following history:

After numberless invocations of the deity, in all possible forms that words were capable of expressing, for mercy, compassion, and forgiveness upon a creature wicked to excess, it began.

I Joanna Anderson, a child of hell, and companion of demons, (how can I utter my shame!) was when in life, the wife of Miles Anderson, a child of heaven, a companion of angels, the truest and most loving, the most indulgent husband upon earth.——Then, after reciting some former transactions between them, and the design of the voyage in which they were cast away, with which I shall not trouble the reader; she goes on; fate fixed us here, where having me, base, ungrateful, damned, deceitful me, with him, he sustained his life with seeming pleasure, rather than give me occasion to grieve. We lived two years here, having been always childless, and Oh, that I had died so! Cursed curiosity! I had too much of our first mother in me, and rather than not try novelty, would succumb to the devil, or his likeness. Then she shews her weakness, and how she had been often in dumb shew sollicited to embrace a sea monster: And flying out into passionate curses upon herself, which shewed the depth of despair; I cast off my love to my husband, that dear husband, and entered into criminal commerce with this brute, this beast, this devil, this monster; nay, nor could I be satisfied without a daily repetition of my crime, till I became fruitful by him. Then she raved again. Then said, O loving husband, at eternal rest, how wert thou deceived by me! with what tenderness didst thou look down on my springing womb! thinking that thine own which a beast had fecundated! here she raved again. Thou waitedst on me in my travail, hopeful of a return of thine own bowels; when O horrid! none of thine, twin monsters appear, the lively resemblance of their father beast; but beauties both to their viler mother! Cursed deformity could not have proceeded from thee, O! husband, husband, mine now no more! Here she raved again. Yes, knowing them mine, and not doubting them thine own, how hast thou dandled them; placing their bestial snouts to thy soft lips, whilst they infolded thy dear neck in their snake-like arms! This thou didst, because thou thoughtest that I loved them, thy dear wife. Here she grew wild and extravagant, and so abundant in blasphemous imprecations and curses, that I could read no more, nor ever have since been able to go through with it, it was so shocking to human nature.

Having collected as much as let me into the monster’s extraction, (for I could never after this think him man) I could not refrain from having a worse opinion of him than I had before, and had some debate with myself, how far it would or would not consist with prudence, to inform him of his pedigree; till considering, that as he had so great a light of reason, as to detest his deplorable condition, now he took himself for a true descendant of the human species, depraved only by accident, he would undoubtedly be under a more pungent affliction, would he be certain, under his mother’s own hand, of his original from a brute. I wished I could have been satisfied of the shape of the beast who had impressed her, from any marks in her history; but could not, from any thing, but from her saying, that upon her delivery twin monsters appeared, the lively resemblance of their father, which in her exotick way of speech, might allude to the genus, as well as the species.

From this time, I could no longer take the same satisfaction in the society and converse of the monster, or any of his brood, as I used to do; and began to form a design of leaving him. I consulted Jacob upon the head, who I found wanted but little persuasion to inspire him with the like sentiments; and so without more ado, we told the old monster, that we had been now so long confined to this narrow retreat, that we wanted to enlarge ourselves a little in the air, and had formed a purpose of taking a flight, to see if we could discover land any where; that we thanked him for all his civilities to us, and would take our leave of him and his family, lest by any chance befalling us, we should not return again; but that if no accident would happen, and we did not soon find the land we fought for, we would return and end our days with him.

The old monster was very sorry to part with us, alledging that no part of his life, since the death of his father, had passed so agreeably, as the two years that we had been with him; he pressed us very much to stay, or at least to take him with us in our flight, for he longed, he said, to see those countries his father had given him so ample relation of.

I told him, that his regard for his family would certainly over-ballance any real intention of that kind, however in speculation it seemed pleasing; and that for our parts it was not impossible, but we might hit upon the Isle of Providence in our travels, which if we did, we should never have thoughts of stirring from it again; and then it would be impossible for him ever to think of returning. These reflections put him by his request of accompanying us, and we having prepared every thing for our flight, and conveyed the eagle to the summit of the rock, we begged some of his dried fish, and a few bottles of water, and departed from the cave pretty early in the morning.

The old monster insisted upon attending us to the eagle, and the expectation of the young crew was raised so high, that they would all follow him. We had before placed the eagle properly for rising, and then getting upon it, we at few strokes left the rock, and this mixed breed of creatures behind us.


The course Daniel and Jacob took in flight. Alight and search habitations. Find none. Take flight again. Fall in with Laplanders. They are terrified. Consult their drum if they shall admit him. Daniel hears bad news from the Isle of Providence.

JACOB was so alert and vigorous at first setting out, that if I had not checked him, we had certainly been soon out of sight of the earth, but I told him the consequences of such an enterprise, for that it would undoubtedly involve us in the same difficulty we were in before; and instead of settling us in some known country, it would only transport us again to the moon, or perhaps some other planet, from whence we might never return. He said, he did not choose to subject the eagle to any more shot, which was the reason he mounted so high; I agreed that we would not descend low enough to run that hazard, till we saw a convenient landing; but that nevertheless, if we kept out of sight of port, we would be bewildered.

These reasons brought him to lower his sails, and though we could not perfectly distinguish the regions we passed over, we were able to delineate the land from the water, as we were sure at our first setting out, that we were at a vast distance from any of the European countries, we thought we would spend one night in direct flight, and that possibly by morning we might reach them; so lowering considerably at the approach of night, and being sensibly assured, we were then over the sea, we went on, though slowly, for fear of mounting too high. We were resolved to keep a strait course, as most likely to answer our purpose, and the morning and evening several times returned, but no land appeared. We had then thoughts of altering our course, which we had done, had not I advised waiting till next day; but alas! the morning came not as we expected; we perceived indeed a dawn behind us as if the day was breaking forth, but it soon left us, and the further we went the darker it grew.

How long we had flown in the dark I cannot say, but it was a long while, though we had a moon great part of the time, and several streaks of light, which flattered us with the hopes of day, but no day came. At length we found ourselves, for want of sufficient light to direct us, very near the surface of somewhat, like a large plain of light as white as milk, nor could we any where around us, obtain any other prospect, save that every now and then, the horizon was edged with light behind us, and that more and more; this glare of light deceiving us, we were nearer it by far than we expected, and I conjecturing it to be snow, from the sharpness, and extreme cold of the air, told Jacob, that it was my opinion, we would alight somewhere hereabouts, and stowing the eagle in safety, should travel on foot, in quest of some habitation or other; for I was satisfied it would not be long before we had more light, from the gradual increase that we plainly perceived of it, whenever it appeared; but Jacob, who had never before heard of snow, not choosing to venture himself upon it, after the account I had given him, of its sometimes swallowing up travellers; told me, that as the light seemed to appear to our right hands, though rather behind us, his opinion was, that we should make towards it, as the readiest and speediest means of obtaining it; and then we might possibly descry habitations at some distance, and be certain which way to go, if we landed in quest of them.

As I could not but admit that Jacob’s argument was weighty, I acquiesced to it, and we pursued it; perceiving more and more light arising to us, as we travelled, till at last we had the glorious prospect of the sun. We by that light, after some flight, saw at a great distance, as we imagined, a city of large dimensions, and finding it an open country most part of the way, till pretty near it, we sought out a place to alight on, where we might best secure the eagle, in case we should be compelled to have recourse to it again; and there being a very high hill at hand, covered thinly with large trees, we without more ado made the best of our way to it, and directing our flight amongst them, after a few strokes we rested.

Here we thanked providence for conducting us safe so far, and begged that we might meet with friendly entertainment from the inhabitants before us, and that they might prove to be friends to the English nation. Having done this, and eaten a piece of our remaining fish, after washing it down with a cup of water, we set out for the city, which now we were on earth, we could no longer behold; but still we retained the knowledge of its situation, we found it much colder now we were on the earth, (though stirring) than we had been on the eagle; and were sensible, that our cloathing, which was of callicoe, was not very suitable to the climate we were in; however, after several days’ search, we could find no city, or any such thing as an inhabitant, which greatly perplexed us and caused us to imagine, that a string of broken hills which we had passed, must be the supposed city we had seen, and relying on it, that it was so, we instantly returned to find the eagle; but had much ado to hit on the wood we had left it in, there being so many in our return, so like each other; but at length we obtained what we sought for, and mounting it, for we both grew more and more impatient for an end of our travels, as we were not now blest with a supply of our leaf, and the woods we had been in were not only destitute of the least provision, but were even bare of leaves too, without more delay we got on the wing, and after a small flight of no great height, for I alledged that our height was the occasion of our being before deceived, and that it was the less necessary now, in a country where we had travelled so far without the least sign of habitations; we skimmed no higher from the ground than we could plainly distinguish different objects. On the further side of a barren mountain which we had just past, we perceived on a large plain, at a great distance before us, somewhat of vast length, seemingly in motion, which we made up to reconnoitre, and found to be a long string of pack-horses, as we imagined, with several drivers, and a number of people travelling with them.

The very sight of the human species revived us; but we had met with so uncivil a treatment, where we before designed to have landed, from our own kind, that it made us very cautious how we trusted ourselves near the reach of any engine of mischief they might have with them. Yet not absolutely to avoid them, we pressed forwards, and soon perceived they had observed us, by their making a general halt, both of man and beast, and collecting themselves into one body.

We could not observe any missive weapons that they bore, and being particularly certain, that we saw nothing like a gun amongst them, we advanced within hearing, and called to them. Our first word brought them all to their knees, with their hands uplifted, and their bodies inclining, forward to the ground. I asked, in English, what countrymen they were? but had no answer. Then, being master of as much Dutch as would demand the same question, (for I had learnt a little of that language from my wife, who understood it very well) I made the same request in Dutch, but had no answer yet, they all continuing prostrate, save one, who rising, and stepping before the rest, asked me, if I could speak Dutch? I replied in Dutch, yes, and again put my question, what countrymen they were? he answered, that himself was a Fleming, but that all the rest were Laplanders. I had never before heard of such a name, and enquired how far it was to England? he told me, a great way, and demanded if I was an Englishman. I replied, yes; he was very glad of it, he said, for that I had almost terrified them out of their wits.

I then bid him ask his company, whether we might safely alight amongst them, and if they would assist us, for we meant them no harm; he returning, collected them all round him, and delivered his message; but they were sore affrighted with the thoughts of men descending to them from the clouds, that they at first desired to be excused, and wished us to go somewhere else.

However, the Dutchman begging hard for us, prevailed with them to enquire by their drum, who we were; where we came from; and whether our admission amongst them would be attended with any ill consequence or not; which at length, they agreeing to, he called us to stay as we were till they had consulted their drum; this we being forced to comply with, the operation began in the following manner.

The whole company drew up in a circle, then one of them with a long hollow oval instrument, (which we were after informed was a drum) squatted down in the middle of the ring, stroking and playing with this instrument. At length, he arising, began to twirl about, and distort himself into numberless shapes and figures; when after some time of exercising himself in that manner, he at once fell prostrate on the earth, having swung his drum on his back, and with arms and legs extended at full length, he continued in that posture for a very long time, during which the rest of the company seemed, by slow motion, to dance round him, singing, some louder, some softer all the time.

I had conceived from the Fleming, sufficient grounds to conjecture, that this ceremony was a sort of invocation of their deity, for his direction, whether to receive me or not; and seeing the man lie for so long a time prostrate, without the least perceptible motion, I imagined that he was slain, as a sacrifice to their deity, to obtain a favourable answer to their requests, and was telling Jacob my suspicion; when, of a sudden, starting up, and all the company dancing with him very merrily, they in an instant stopped; and he ordered the Fleming to tell me, that he had been at the Isle of Providence with Ruth Daniel, who was dying with grief for the loss of me. That my elder sons had quarrelled with the younger for their settlements, and great mischief was like to follow from it. That I was destined for England, and should die there; and upon, the whole, that I might safely land, and would be received as a friend, and be maintained till my departure.

This declaration was no sooner made, than the general voice proclaimed my welcome, and indeed we had not far to go to them; for having rested, hovering in the same place so long, the force Jacob applied to the handle was too weak to keep us at a stay, and I perceived we were sunk considerably lower, while we had been on our parly. So dropping down amongst them, I began to appeal to their senses, (although our first appearance might surprise them, yet, that we were as really men as they were, limb for limb, part for part, and thanked them for their kind invitation to us; but their surprise was not to be exceeded, when they perceived us to be distinct creatures from our machine, which they took to be a part of Jacob, seeing him move up and down in working it; nevertheless, after a considerable gaze at us, their fears subsided, and we grew better acquainted. But the news I had heard of my wife and children, which the diviner delivered with so great an air of truth, and which I was fully inclined to believe, (not from the probability of it only, but from his declaring so readily the name of the island and my wife, with my children’s settlements) preyed upon my vitals like a burning flame, and almost consumed me; till recollecting, that he said also, that I would die in England, that gave me a gleam of comfort; and as I had before relinquished all prospect of ever seeing any of my family again, their misfortunes dwelt not so heavily upon me, as they would have done, had there been but the least hope of my ever more arriving amongst them; for then my impatience would have been excessive till that time came.


Stays with the Laplanders. Has hopes of reaching England. Different seasons of Lapland. Daniel and Jacob’s discourse of England. Set out with a Dutchman on foot for Norway. Carries his eagle. Describe the way. Adventures by the way. Hear of the whale fishing Ships.

IT was now towards the close of our short day, and the halt I had occasioned, having hindred the attainment of their projected stage, they determined to rest where they were till next morning, most of which time Jacob employed in taking his eagle to pieces, and packing it up in the wings; and before they set forward again, he observing a spare beast or two, had prevailed to employ one of them in the carriage of his eagle.

I had never seen such creatures before, as their beasts were, for they had large bodies and branched horns. I was well enough acquainted with the English stag, to which this bore a resemblance, but exceeded it so far in size, that I was sure it must be of another species, and upon enquiry, I heard that they were rain deer, and the only beast for draught or burthen in that country.

I got the Dutchman to inform me, whitherto they were all travelling; he said, only to shift their quarters, for the convenience of better provision for themselves and cattle; then I entered into discourse with him, how it might be possible to get to England; he told me, he hoped to be in Holland the end of the next season for whale fishing, for that he was by misfortune left behind, on a little island in the north sea, when the ships departed the last year; that he had two companions, but they were both dead, and the Laplanders, with whom he had often before been, were so kind to give him entertainment, till the return of the shipping for the fishery.

I had now before me, I thought, a reasonable prospect of attaining what I had so much longed for; and stuck close to, and contracted a particular intimacy with the Fleming for that purpose. The next day we arrived at the post designed, where we found part of an old hut standing, that had been inhabited by them the former season; and all hands falling to repair it, we soon rendered it habitable in their way.

By that time the hut was well finished, we had a fine rain, and in the compass of a few days more, the snow was all melted and run off the ground. Our time was now chiefly employed in hunting and fishing, of which there was such abundance, so soon as the rivers and lakes were open, that it was amazing from whence they all came. As for foxes, otters, martins and gluttons, we destroyed in a small time vast numbers, for the sake of their skins, with which they informed me, they carried on a great traffick; and the wolves being pretty numerous in the parts where we settled, we shot and hunted them with dogs, of which they had many very fine ones; and in these sorts of exercises our time passed very agreeably.

We killed two large bears whilst I was with them, and some wild elks; and the performance of our exploit upon the bears, was attended with abundance of ceremony, and extraordinary good eating the flesh would have been, had it not been spoiled in the cookery; but as it was, we had a great feast upon it, and were all very merry.

I was extremely surprised to see, that so soon as the snow had left us, the earth put forth for vegetation, even in such manner, that the very country, which but few days space before seemed to be formed of marble, and that too incased in unfathomable snow, with ice incrusting every tree and shrub, was now transformed into a most verdant and delightful garden; all nature stepping forth in its brightest array of blade and flower; and the trees, bushes and shrubs, full leaved, blooming, and hastening almost instantly towards maturity. The Dutchman told me, that every thing would continue in that perfection some months, with the sun a constant spectator of it; but added, that several succeeding moons would visit it in its former dismal state again.

We had not been a great while exercised in the above employments, before the Fleming told me, he believed it would be time for us to be going, for that the ships would be returning to their fishery; he said, we would have a long walk, as we must go over the mountains to Norway, before we would meet with any craft to put us on board them, which would take us up some time. I informed Jacob what the Fleming said, and that I was resolved to walk with him; Jacob started; Father, says he, what can I do with the eagle? Nay, Jacob, says I, now I have so great hopes of seeing my native more again, I’ll willingly desert it, to the kind inhabitants of this country, whose humanity has supported us so long. Never think more of it man, we shall travel home in a more convenient machine than your eagle, and being arrived there, shall have no further need of it.

Truly father, says Jacob, if your countrymen are but like the people you would have me quit with you, I shall repent my ever having left the Isle of Providence; for instead of that knowing creature you have always mentioned mankind to be, and the delight of his Maker, I have yet seen none of them, whose way of life seems to me a whit more rational in its station than a brute; nor one of them with whom I would change condition; for they all seem to have acted to the height of their satisfaction and aims; but as for myself, I can perceive many deficiencies in my attainments; I am in daily want of somewhat I have not, and seem sensible that I am capable of far greater things than I can execute, as being restrained from several means that I could, were they attainable, employ to the glory of my Maker and the benefit of mankind; and whilst I am deficient in these, I can never be at peace.

You have, I must own son, says I, been hitherto introduced but to the inferior species of man, though when you shall arrive at my country, you will be of another opinion as to man’s faculties; for when you shall see a subordination of mankind, some governing, some obeying, some directing, others executing, and each individual capable of performing somewhat of much value; to the whole community, as may be taken in exchange for food, raiment, and every other necessary of life; when you shall lee those who abound with all they can desire, and are even at a loss how to employ their wealth, distributing it to others for trifles which themselves want not; whereby each enjoys the comfort he aims at; you will certainly admire the methods of providence in the management of the whole.

Father, says Jacob, according to our first setting out, I suspected that all the governors, and men of wealth, must be very happy men; but upon reflection, if the rich men want what the poor men can perform, though the poor men also want what the rich only can bestow; yet l can’t distinguish which of them is the most happy, for there is want on either side, and I feel by myself a real infelicity in wanting any thing, and why would not these great men do the same?

I told him that whatever they wanted, they could supply by their riches, every one being desirous of being at their command, for the benefit of obtaining part of them for their own labour: As suppose, said I, for instance, I am a rich man, and I want to have a magnificent house built; I then send and consult the several operators, disclose my mind to them, of what size and dimensions I would have it, and then agree with them each for performing his part; in which work, each of the poor artificers earn, two, five, ten, or more years subsistence from me whilst the work is about; I, only living all the time at my case, with the pleasure of observing how the work grows daily nearer to perfection under their hands. Now don’t you think, that I would in that case indulge myself, far more than the labourers at the work could?

I am apt to think not, says Jacob: Why so, says I. You, says Jacob, want your house, and can never be satisfied till you have it, otherwise you would not have set about it. Then can you be perfectly easy till it is finished, for till then you must want it? I know by myself, while I worked at the eagle, that (having proposed a particular enjoyment from it when made) I could not be happy till I had compleated it; and can you imagine, that you, who had in your own mind appropriated the several parts of your building to such particular purposes, and expected such enjoyments from the whole, could rest perfectly satisfied for years together, without longing to be in the full fruition of the perfect work? For my part, I am satisfied, I could not. Then turn your thoughts from yourself to the workmen. He cannot be happy, who involuntarily is bound either to work, or starve; and yet he may be said to be happier, whose daily labour supplies his daily want, than you, who from the nature of your undertaking, are obliged to want for years together.

Jacob, says I, hadst thou received a liberal education, thou hadst been a great man; I never knew the bottom of you before; you have been hitherto too reserved and thoughtful, but that won’t do when you come to England; you must be brisk and lively, and talk to all, not wait till you have an opportunity of saying some thing to the purpose, for in some companies, you may not put in a word at that rate.

Jacob told me, he knew my country only by hearsay as yet; but that he had always thought that the faculty of speech, given to man, preferable to the other parts of the creation, was a consequence of his superior endowments of mind; and that it was a great perverting of the design of’ providence, to turn it to wrong, or even trifling purposes; but if every one else did so there, he presumed he would soon fall into the custom of the multitude; though he said, nothing was so irksome to him, as to speak to no purpose; for he thought such persons sheer fools, that were delighted with their own useless prating.

He then begged we might contrive some way of taking the eagle with him, for he could not bear the thoughts of going without it. I told him, it would be too great an incumberance for us to travel with cross the mountains, which the Dutchman told me, were both many and dangerous, before we reached to Denmark. Father says he, I dare say, we might easily carry the Dutchman with us on it, if he did but know the way, as well in the air as on land. Jacob, says I, you shall never mount me on it again, now I have once a moral certainty of reaching England, by means I am better acquainted with. But, says I, had some persons, understanding in geography and astronomy, but a compass and your eagle, they would visit every city in the known and unknown world, with very little trouble or loss of time; the want of which conveniences, have rendered its use to us so very uncertain.

Poor Jacob listened to me with a very close attention, though he knew not what I meant, by the terms I mentioned, and was now more loth than ever to quit his future hopes in the eagle. He asked me, if people in England understood those things I had spoke of, and whether they would not teach him; I told him, nothing was more common than the knowledge of such sciences in England, and that several persons made it their business to teach others for reward. The hopes of this put Jacob upon declaring that if ever he arrived there, he would learn these things the first work he set upon, and then, should not doubt paying a visit to his brethren at the Isle of Providence, and was now more than ever determined not to part from his eagle; so that growing at length importunate, I consented to his taking it, if he could convey it thither; but that I would not incumber myself with any part of the carriage of it.

Our departure was now at hand, and Jacob had essayed to carry his eagle, but found it would be impossible for such a length of way, and over such mountains as the Dutchman had described; so he applied himself to the master, or head of the family, with whom we were, and laying before him his grievance, in the most affecting manner that he could, urging the labour that it had cost him, the regard he had for it, and the affliction it would be to him to part with it, together with the impossibility of his conveying it to Norway, without some assistance; begged him to give him some old rain deer, of little value, for that purpose, assuring him, if it was possible, it should be returned him, if he could meet with any one crossing the mountains from Norway.

The old man was so moved with Jacob’s pitiful story, that he granted his request, which raising a new spring of life in Jacob, he forthwith packed up his all, and away we went; but the earth was so dry, and thereupon so hot, that notwithstanding the many rivulets and pools abounding in the flat country, we could scarce walk from one to the other of them for thirst; and we always took up our resting place near one of them. As we lay once by one of these pools, we heard from a thicket, but little to our left, the howl of several wolves; this shocked us terribly, and I fearing they would immediately seize us, the Dutchman told us, that the rain deer would be our security; for that the wolves, would not molest us, so long as they could, come at that. This speech raised Jacob’s choler extremely, who, I dare say, had rather have lost the Dutchman, than his eagle-bearer; he ran to the eagle, and, turning aside some part of the wings, drew out a rib, for each of us to defend ourselves with, we having nothing but sticks besides. These ribs were so very long and taper, that I feared they would rather turn than penetrate the skin of the wolves; but however, we took them, putting ourselves upon our defence; and Jacob beseeching us not tamely to give up the beast, we placed it in the rear, and drew up to receive their onset, who were now upon the full trot, with their tails extended, to attack us. Seeing us cover the beast, they wheeled a little, to take us in flank; but we still facing, as they moved, (for there were but two of them) we always kept the beast behind us. Finding no good was to be done, by the method they had taken, one of them sprung forward at us, before his companion, which Jacob observing, and fearing (as he afterwards declared) that we would have retreated, and laid open the deer to them, he met it half way, and piercing the rib through his mouth, he forced it out at his flank. The beast, notwithstanding this injury, pressed forward at him with such violence, as to force the rib out of his hand, and falling on him, would have torn him with its teeth, had it been able; but the rib as a gag, prevented it.

By this time, the Dutchman being nearest, had ran to Jacob’s relief, who was thrown down, with the wolf upon him; but with one blow on the head he knocked down the creature, and relieved Jacob, at which instant, the other wolf (beholding the fate of his companion) turned tail, and fled to the wood again.

I then stopped and asked Jacob, if he had received any injury; but found him too full of joy for the escape of the deer, to give me any account of himself, till he had expressed his satisfaction for the beast’s deliverance. He then told me, he had received no other hurt, than a scratch on his breast by the wolf’s claw; and now, father, says he, what would we have done without the eagle? You would have had me leave it behind us, but you see how it is calculated to serve us in more shapes than one; and had we deserted it, we might all have perished here, for ought I know.

I told him, that as it happened, it was well indeed that we had brought it, but asked him, how he durst be so daring, as singly to attack the creature; and why he did not rather wait for our united forces against it? Truly, said he, when I saw it push forward with such fierceness, I expected you would both have retreated, and by delivering up the deer, have endeavoured to secure yourselves; but was persuaded, that whilst you should perceive me in danger before you, you would rather attempt my rescue As for the poor deer, I would have ventured a hundred lives for his sake, rather than he should have died with my eagle upon his back.

Jacob then drew out the rib from the wolf, and we examined its teeth and skin, and other parts, for it was a very large one; and then considering that if we remained longer there, we might meet with another attack, for we still heard the creatures in the wood, we marched on, about four miles further, and pitched again; but were resolved that one should from thence forward always watch, while the other two slept, and this method we kept to through the whole journey.

We were eight days in passing only the mountains, and were good part of the time in great distress for water; but at last we reached Froslau, where we heard that some ships were arrived for the fishery, but were gone more westward; this gave us some discouragement, but being sure there were more to come, according to the time of the year, we kept a sharp look out to watch for them, and at last espying several sail, we got a boat, and went off to them.


Endeavour to get on board the Ships. Description of Daniel. Are refused. Speaks with captain Nevil. Offers a present for his passage. Knows the captain’s family. Hears of his father’s death and circumstances. Relates his adventures. Jacob to work his passage. Jacob’s death. Land at Aldborough.

WE laboured hard to lie in the way of the ships we saw coming, and they proved by good fortune to be English. As for our Dutchman, who had been before at the same employment, they made no scruple of taking him on board; but as for Jacob and myself, they could with great difficulty be prevailed on, even to hear what we had to say; not expecting we were any ways either able to pay for our passage, or to be serviceable in the ship.

As for myself, to be sure, I had a very unpromising aspect for service, having a beard almost to my girdle, as white as snow; but though I was then just ninety years of age, I was as heart whole, as I had been at thirty, and could endure (tho’ not so much labour as I could have done at that age, yet) much more than could have been expected, had I been twenty years younger.

I soon guessed where the difficulty lay, and desired to speak with the master of the vessel in private. He received me in to the cabbin, where, I told him, my life had been a series of uncommon adventures, and I greatly coveted to lay my corps in England, my native country; that I had above sixty years before, been an inhabitant of a place called Royston in Hertfordshire, which I would fain visit before I died; that I could not boast of my ability to gratify him, in the ample manner he might expect for my passage, and that of my son, whom I had left in the boat; but as far as I was able, I would offer him a recompence, and that my son and self would over and above work in the ship, according to our best abilities. I then pulling out a ring, with two large diamonds in it, offered it to him for the favour of our passage. He looked upon it and laid it on the table.

I observed his countenance to brighten as he viewed the ring, which gave me some hopes his answer would be favourable. Then turning to me; from Royston, says he, did you say you came? I told him, I did many years ago. What was your profession there, says he? I replied, a smith, and that, my father was of the same profession. Was not his name Daniel, says he? I started at his pronouncing the name; nay, be not surprised, says he, if you are his son, I have heard much of him in my youthful days. I assured him my name was Daniel, and that I was the son of Daniel the smith of Royston. Says he, you are my countryman. Did you know any of the Nevils in your time? Yes, replied I, sir James Nevil and his four sons; I have done many a job for sir James, and a worthy honest gentleman he was; but sir, says I, he must have been dead many years ago. I don’t remember him, says he, but he was my grandfather. And pray, sir, says I, which of my good young masters sons are you? There was, let me see, my master James, he was the eldest; there was Edward, Henry, and William. Lord sir, says I, they are all now methinks before me here; fine gentlemen. But pray, whose son of them all are you? The master replied, that he was the youngest son of Henry. And pray sir, says I, is your good father living, and your uncles? He told me, no, neither of them, but there were children living of some of them; but that the family was dispersed over the kingdom, not one of them, or their defendants now living in Hertfordshire. He said, he had a wife and family in Suffolk.

I then begged he would inform me, if he had ever seen my father, old Daniel; he said, he could not recollect that he had, but had often heard of his story, and had many times seen Sarah Daniel, who was his wife, and went mad about the streets when he was a boy. He said, it was reported, that she had absolutely ruined old Daniel, and that he died upon the parish; but as for her, he had seen her within these twenty years begging from door to door.

This report went the nearest to my heart of any thing that ever befel me; and I burst out into tears, upon the reflection of what my poor father must have suffered, and the justice of providence in repaying his misfortunes upon the head of that vile woman my mother-in-law. Captain Nevil pitied me very much, and bidding me dry up my tears, he told me, he presumed I was dame Daniel’s son John, she often mentioned, and for whose sake, it was reported she went mad.

I told him that I was the very person; though my tears proceeded not from any thought of her misfortune, which was but too justly fallen upon her; but that the remembrance of my poor father, and the application of his calamity to my mind almost overcame me.

Well countryman, says captain Nevil, be of good cheer, you are fallen into good hands; here take your ring, put it up again, your age claims my regard for you, and makes you a proper messmate for myself; therefore eat you always in my cabin. As for your son he is better able to shift, let him lend a hand to what he can perform in the ship, and I’ll take you both to Suffolk, with me, if it pleases God to bless us with a good voyage. But pray, says he, what accident brought you into this unfrequented part of the world, and in his odd sort of dress too?

I told the captain, that my travels were so uncommon, and the turns in life I had met with so various, that they would, to relate them particularly, take up more of his time than he perhaps would choose to bestow on them; but that whenever he was at leisure to hear me, I would willingly declare them to him. He told me, that the first opportunity, he would demand my promise; then ordering me to see that my son came on board, and was provided for, I left him.

I went then to the boat, and took Jacob and his eagle on board, for he would have quitted life rather than it; I told him how kind the captain had been to me, and that he was to work his passage to England; with all which, Jacob seemed very well contented, minding but little of what I said, for viewing the ship and tackle.

We sailed yet further north, and took several whales between three ships of us; so that they amounted to five whales and odd parts each ship, which the captain told me, was the best voyage he had ever made in that trade.

Jacob, who was always best satisfied under employment, was in a little time as active as the best of the hands, in sinking, or recovering the whale, and work’d very hard in that employ; and after a little while, one of the best hands in the ship dying, the captain, who had often taken notice of his readiness and dexterity, entered him on the ship’s book, to receive pay; which greatly encouraged him to exert himself. But one fatal day, towards the latter part of our fishing, the whale being struck in sight of the ship; as Jacob stood ready with his axe, to chop the running line at the edge of the boat; the line by some accident received a check, which he perceiving and suddenly striking to cut it in two, missed his blow, when the boat was immediately drawn under water by the strength of the fish.

I was a spectator amongst several others, of the fatal catastrophe, but it was out of our power to afford them the least assistance; for before we could send a boat after them, the crew were all drowned. This melancholy accident, even (as one might say) in our voyage home, for it was the last fish we struck, must needs alarm the tenderness of a father to a great degree; and so it would mine, had I not had a settled complication of afflictions on my spirits before: For the loss of my wife, with the constant reflections on her sufferings for me; the privation of all my other children; and lastly the account I had received of my father’s misfortunes, had so prepossessed all my senses, that I had not room for separate pangs on his account; nor was his loss well capable of aggravating my former concern.

The worthy captain, who himself had beheld the loss, exceedingly pitied me, and to alleviate my grief all that was in his power, was as indulgent to me as my own child could have been, which could not choose to moderate my distress, especially in the presence of my humane benefactor; and it was owing, in great measure, to his compassion for me, that I weathered the load of my calamities, till we arrived at Aldborough, within few miles of which place my generous patron lived.


Captain takes Daniel home. Relates his adventures to the captain’s wife and children. Their reflections. Shews Mrs. Nevil the manuscript. She cannot read it. Goes with captain Nevil to Royston. Hears a melancholy account of his father and mother. Goes with captain Nevil to parson Williams. Description of the parson. His entertainment. Parson hears his story. Send for the eagle. Parson is satisfied it will fly. Reflections of the parson’s. Mr. Williams offers him a living with him. Shews them his watch and jewels. Value them at above a thousand pounds. Presents captain Nevil with a ring. Gives Williams the rest to maintain him.

THE day after our arrival, he took me home with him, where he had a lady and five children, to whom (after an interchange of domestick endearments) he presented me, as the wonder, not only of the present age, but of past generations. The account he gave her of me, in a few days, procured a request from her, of a repetition of my past adventures; which was no ways to be denied, to a woman possessed of every quality, which could either command, or charm the heart of man, being the most compliant wife, and indulgent mother I had ever beheld; nor were her children under the tuition of so excellent a pattern, wanting in any endowment that could render them useful to themselves, or a blessing to their parents.

The good lady in a day or two, (taking the opportunity of her husband’s absence, who was then at Aldborough, settling the affairs of his vessel, and calling me into the parlour, where I found her seated, with all the masters and misses around her) defined I would set down, and gratify that curiosity which her husband had excited in her, to be informed of my life and transactions.

I told her, that I was ready to obey her commands, and beginning with the occasion of my leaving first Royston, and then the kingdom, I hasted to my shipwreck on the Isle of Providence, and my difficulties there, till I discovered a wife in my comrade. She was expressly particular in her enquiries on this circumstance, and whether I could not reflect on any transactions before the discovery, that I afterwards wondered I had not sooner suspected her by, and many other questions. I then went on to my clearing the wreck, of what proved prodigious useful to me; when the eldest master made many remarks upon my conduct in that affair, hinting, as if he could have managed better in that case. I went on to my marrying, and settling my children; when the eldest young lady, about fifteen, over and over, pressed for information how old they were, and what sort of a miss my daughter was, and how tall? with many other remarks. But the second son was wholly delighted with the bull baiting, as he called it, and asked what sort my dogs were of, and would have me describe again the instrument with which I told them I used to cut their hamstrings; whilst one of the young ladies and her mother wept heartily at the story of the cow and calf, and the two youngest, I found, were most delighted with the sow and pigs.

Having gone through all the material transactions on the island, I set all their imagination afloat, with the description of my travels upon the eagle; but when I had landed myself on the mountains of the moon, you might have seen them on tiptoe, half out of their seats to be with me; and now it was more than I could possibly do, to answer regularly so confused a set of queries as were proposed to me all at once; and had I not extricated myself by assuring them that my ignorance of the country I was then in, had prevented my making further remarks upon it, or its inhabitants, than what I had before declared, should never have got clear through the remainder of my story: So entering upon my journey back again, I brought their ideas home to our own globe, and described my precipitate fall down the cleft of the rock.

They all seemed now to shudder at the thought, and were almost converted to statues; but the youngest crept close together, without moving their eyes from my mouth, while I described the company that we met with at the bottom; and here again, I could have wished myself to have been a good draftsman, which might have saved a multitude of words in the description; but the lady herself, and her eldest daughter, were with nothing moved so much, as with the account of Mrs. Joanna Anderson’s manuscript.

Seeing their passions rise so high of concern and contempt for Mrs. Anderson; I told her, (but that I feared it might be disagreeable to her,) she would see the manuscript, for I had it in my pocket; she earnestly begged she might; when having read here and there a little, and finding it full of such horrid imprecations and sentiments of despair, me desired me to put it up again, as a thing proper for very few persons to have the perusal of.

I then went through the several other remaining passages of my life, till I came on board captain Nevil, and describing the death of my son, landed myself at Aldborough; since which, madam, says I, what have I had to do, but to praise the hand of providence, which having delivered me from such numberless perils, hath in my old age, raised me up such noble benefactors, as the captain and yourself.

I then told her, I longed as much as a child, to see Royston before I died, and fearing I had already transgressed too much on the captain’s and her good nature by my stay, that I purposed in a day or two at furthest, to set forward upon a walk thither. The lady said, she feared such an undertaking would be too much for a man of my years; but I told her, nature had been very kind to me, for that I was no ways indisposed, though I could perceive myself impared much; and tho’ I could not walk so fast, or nimble, as a younger man, I could yet hold out as long; and constant progression, though not to the height of speed, would at last land me there, I did not doubt.

The next day, having dined, after rehearsing to the captain some parts of my story, and the great pleasure she took in hearing it; the captain’s lady told him, that I talked of walking to Royston, and of setting out in a day or two. What? says he to me, are you mad? You must not think to be the same man for ever that you have been. No, no, says he, it will be too much for you countryman; but you shall nevertheless be there, in about three weeks; for my dear, says he, I have a long time promised parson Williams to spend a day or two with him, and as he is an old stander in those parts, and I believe knew Mr. Daniel’s father very well, I shall be never the less welcome for carrying the old gentleman with me thither in the chariot.

I told him, it was a favour too great for me to aspire to, and that he had well nigh overwhelmed me, with the abundance of his kindnesses already, even till I grew uneasy, for fear of being too troublesome to him. Leave that to me, old gentleman, says he; but however, for this once we will go together; for I have a little thing there, that usually pays the charge of my journey, and it hath now been five years since I received a penny from it; and whether my tenant be living or dead, or whether he is run away or not, I can’t say; but however, I am sure of a hearty welcome at the parson’s.

Sir, says I, pray what family is this Mr. Williams of? I remember somebody of that name, when I lived at Royston. His father, says he, was a shopkeeper there, and having got a little money, sent his son to the university, where he became a parson, and my father at his return from thence, took him into our family, as a tutor to his children, and gave him a little living about six miles from thence.

Well, at the appointed time, we set out, and arrived at the captain’s tenant’s, who after he had discovered who I was, (for he was somewhat surprised at the uncouth figure I made, with my long beard, and dirty callicoe cloaths, which were rather a wrapper than cloaths, wound round me in a peculiar manner) rejoiced exceedingly at the sight of me, having so often heard the occasion of my departure; he remembring my father very well.

We soon entered upon old stories, and my mother having made such a noise all over the country, as a mad woman, and daily calling over my name, he was greatly desirous of hearing the truth of the whole story from my own mouth: So I related to him the tale, in the manner I have above stated it, not obscuring the least circumstance. He told me, old Daniel had often repeated to him the folly of his wife, and said, that she had at my first elopement, robbed him of most part of what he had, and gave out to him, at his return from London, that I had done it, and that I had threatened to murder her, if she had not escaped me. Your father, with tears in his eyes, says he, at last used to blame himself, for giving too much credit to her when the truth came out; and upon the loss of you, with all that he had been many years saving together, he grew so remiss in his business, that it soon left him; and finding himself in years, and impaired through discontent, he was sometime afterwards obliged to cast himself upon the care of the parish for alms.

He told me, that though my mother lived well, and seemed not to be in want, she would never cohabit, or even dwell with my father, though nobody could for some years conjecture how she fulfilled herself; till at last she grew crazy, and then out came the whole truth; how she had robbed my father herself, and would have lain with me, and praised me for the loveliest creature in the world, and used to say, I was gone to bring her a fortune, and then would take her to my arms, where she should live for ever; and thus would she rave about the streets, till within eighteen or twenty years past, when she made her exit in the fields, supposed to be starved to death. He said, that her running mad, and disclosing her villainy, so disturbed my father’s mind, to think how far he had, through her persuasions, credited a falsity against me, that it broke his heart.

I having been apprised of most of these facts before by the captain, they made much less impression on me than they would have done, had it been the first account I had received; and believing I had heard the substance of the whole transaction, was no further inquisitive about it, than to ask, whether my father’s house was now standing, and if inhabited, and by whom. He said, it was standing, and inhabited, but whether my father sold it, or not, or by what title the possessor held it, he could not say; but having heard the captain say, we were going to parson Williams’s, he said, we should go by it.

After the captain had received what the old man had to pay, which was far short of his demand, we set out for the parson’s, who I think was the most venerable personage my eyes had ever beheld. Upon our chariot stopping at the door, before we had knocked we saw him returning from his garden, in a black cap over a white linen one, a neck cloth loose about his neck, with an almost black night-gown, flowing behind him; he was of a tall stature, at least six feet, with hair as white as milk, and a complexion clear as alabaster, seamed with the furrows of time in it; but he had a good set of teeth, and a very bright eye, and to my thinking, had something angelick in his aspect. Upon sight of the coach and the captain in it, his countenance was covered with such an honest glee, as did my heart good to see it.

He embraced the captain, and looking up, to lend me a hand to alight, he started back; who have we here, sir, says he, to the captain, one of the ancient patriarchs? or is it some Indian chief you have brought over with you? I’ll warrant you an idolater, poor man. Then taking me by the hand, and saying little, but that very plain, and in a forced accent, that I might the more readily understand him, he led me into the house.

The honest parson’s heart was in raptures, at the sight of his quondam pupil, nothing that his house afforded being esteemed good enough for him; and in less than half an hour, the table abounded with a cleanly home made regale.

At length the captain speaking to me, and I (contrary to the parson’s expectation) answering him in English; I presume, sir, said he to me, you have lived some time in the English settlements abroad, by your dialect. I told him, I had a large plantation of my own abroad, and had peopled it, but that myself was his countryman; not a native, says, he; yes, I told him, I was, and that Royston claimed my nativity. I am amazed, says he, I really took you for an Indian. He then asked, how long I had left England, and what parts I had seen? To which the captain replied, that when I was a little composed from my journey, I would let him into a history, that would very, much delight his contemplative genius, and that he brought me with him for that purpose; but that the first thing now to be done, was to procure me a suit of cloaths, which he would before have provided me, but for the satisfaction he had promised himself, in shewing me to him, in my own country garb; and I’ll assure you, says the captain, whatever you may judge this gentleman to be, from his present appearance, he is lord and proprietor of an whole island abroad, peopled all from his own loins.

The parson then staring more wishfully at me; sir, says he, you must needs be of a very great age. I replied, upwards of ninety. Good lack, says he, a great age indeed, and how upright he walks. I am seventy-five myself, but have nothing of your strength in me. The air sir, the air, is a great contributor to length of days; ours is too heavy and vapory, to preserve the lungs so long in many constitutions.

The captain then sent for a taylor, to make me a suit of cloaths, and in about three days time, I was habited in the English manner; but my beard which had so many years been my constant companion, I would not part with at any rate.

I then gave the parson an account of my parentage, and he said, he very well remembered my father, and the crazy dame Daniel, whom he had many times relieved at his gate; for though that country in general believed her story, yet for his own part, imagining that it proceeded only from a distempered brain, he gave but little credit to it: But upon my confirmation of it afterwards, he then believed it.

I found more satisfaction from the repetition of my story to the parson, than I had ever had from the like, to any person before; for his remarks and queries, were all made and demanded with solidity and judgement. And then his opinion upon my flight, and the confluences were so convictive, that they left me no uncertainty of the conclusions he drew from the particular facts. And though I before had my doubts of the reality of my landing in the moon, notwithstanding the monster had nearly convinced me of it from his reasons; yet the parson’s arguments were founded upon such and so many convincing conclusions and deductions, that it was to me, next to impossible to deny him assent; but he regretted my coming without my eagle, and seemed to repeat that so often, and sincerely, that the captain, who took great delight in hearing us discourse on these affairs, promised him to send for it, and did so.

When it came, I was at a loss how to put it together; and the parson having surveyed the several pieces of which it was composed, told me, he could not see the use of many of them, nor could imagine how I could cause it to fly, when it was compleat. I assured him that the fact was experimentally true, that it did, and would fly, and that at a prodigious rate too; and that though I had not now in my head the particular manner of my son’s uniting the parts; yet as I had seen him do it, I was satisfied I should be able to accomplish it. I began with my four posts first, that then I might have a view of the bottom and top at once; and having jointed the floor, (which I assured him was the first step to be taken,) I from thence proceeded to the several parts, which necessarily offered of themselves, successively to compose the whole apparatus; then fixing my pump, I opened the trap door, and ascended the floor.

The parson having surveyed the whole structure round and round; I have always thought, says he, that there is more art and ingenuity shewn in attaining one’s ends by simple than by complex means; and if this eagle as you call it, answers the purpose, I shall be the more confirmed in my sentiments. What a plain machine is here? I expected numbers of wheels and pullies, with different flyers, from what you present me with; but am now satisfied, that if your force is but proportionably greater than your weight, the thing must do; then pray let me see you raise it from its supporters?

At his request, I gave a stroke or two with the wings, which mounted me about the height of the apple-trees in the orchard we had fixed it in; but I soon let it gently down on the ground, being fearful of spoiling the wings amongst the trees; then getting off from it, I asked Mr. Williams, what opinion he had of it. He clasped me in his arms. Mr. Daniel, says he, I would have quitted the imperial crown of these realms with pleasure, to have been where you have, and to have returned as safe; and was I a young man again, I would to-morrow take my flight upon this your eagle. There is not so sublime a notion of the divine Being to be obtained by any other means, as arises from the contemplation of his works, than what a fountain of joy and delight, praise and gratitude, must spring up from the actual survey of them; I mean the remoter parts of them, those as yet, viewed but through a cloud, and only guessed at from imperfect hints and surmises. I would not only have gone to the Moon, our neighbour planet, but to Venus, nay Mars, Jupiter, and even Saturn himself, had my years lasted, should have been visited by me. O! I had there seen the order, regularity, and nice disposition of Jupiter’s satellites, and discovered the use of Saturn’s ring; I had observed the form, the designs, the exercise, and faculties of the several species of inhabitants; united my voice to theirs, in praising our great Creator and Preserver; and whether ever I had returned or not, what had it mattered, so that my soul had been filled with the sense of those mighty works of creation, and of the omnipotent Agent that performed it all.

Mr. Williams, said I, you forget a most necessary thing for your journey, if you would have set out with a view of so distant a tour. He asked me, what that was? My herb and leaf, said I, for otherwise it would have been impossible to have victualled your eagle for such a flight. He told me that was true, but he believed the air in those upper regions was too pure to corrupt, and turn our aliment to ingestion, so soon as it did here below, and that therefore much less quantity would serve; but I am too old, too old, to put my wishes in practice, says he, or I would make the attempt, though I perished in it.

Having gratified the parson’s curiosity, and the place being very improper for further experiments, I took the eagle in pieces, and packed it up again; but it served us for discourse at times, all the while the captain stayed, which was about three weeks.

I one day advising with them, how he should dispose of myself now I was returned home; the captain proposed my traveling with, and exposing the eagle for my subsistence, but the parson was much against it; would you have a man of his years and aspect, says he, be obliged to please every fool that can pay a penny for a fight? No, says he, Mr. Daniel, I will not part with you, but upon some better score than that. I am an old batchelor, and have only my nephew with me, he is now keeping his term at Cambridge indeed, but I say, he is my chief companion, and one who will be as well pleased with the examination of your eagle as myself, and will as much admire your company; and if you have no better way of subsisting, you shall be welcome to my house till one of us drops.

I most sincerely thanked him, telling him my treasure was but small, and all about me; then pulling out my gold watch, rings, and some other jewels, which the monster had presented me with, I laid them down upon the table; there, says I, is all that I am worth in the whole world. The parson took up the watch, and opened it, while the captain was surveying the jewels. This is a very fine watch, says he; ay, says I, the things are worth something; but alas, when a man is to talk of living for life, what are they? And though I am so old, yet being so sound and hearty, I may live years yet. Pray, says the captain, how much a year would content you? I told him, I was as yet a stranger to the price of things, or what might be done for how much money, but I should judge from my past remembrance, that I could live upon five and thirty or forty pounds a year like a gentleman. I’ll give you fourscore pounds a year, says he, for your life, for all these things. Say you so, sir, replied I; truly, since Mr. Williams was so kind to offer me my living free, I had in my own mind disposed of them all to him, as a recompence for his kindness. Nay, says the captain, I’ll be no hindrance to my friend Williams I’ll assure you; but shall rather rejoice at any benefit of his, than my own.

I then desired the captain to give me his opinion of their value; he told me, he had not examined them very scrupulously, nor could he exactly guess their weight, but that allowing for all mistakes, he would give a thousand pounds for them, and they might be worth possibly half as much more.

Gentlemen, says I, you two are the persons in life I am the most beholden to; the captain, for his past generous actions, and you Mr. Williams, for your intentions to me; therefore as I am on old man, and have no other relish in life, but to pass my time in ease and plenty, as to my bodily concerns; and under a strict regard to my maker’s will, and a thorough contemplation of his mercies, as to my spiritual; all which I doubt not good Mr. Williams will attest, and direct me in: I must desire you captain, to accept of this ring, as a present from me, to that respectable lady your wife; and for all the rest, which I am very well pleased to hear is so valuable, I here freely present to Mr. Williams, for the future support and burial of me. Thus having made my will, and put each party in possession of their several legacies, I had nothing further to do in life, than to receive such daily support as would sustain it, till such time as it should please the great preserver of it to demand it at my hands; and to pray for mercy to myself, and blessings to my family abroad.

Having now conducted my reader through a series of uncommon adventures, let him remember that life is but a journey, and the grave his home.


Account of the writer of this history, nephew to Mr. Williams. Put into form by him. William’s death. The writer his executor. Takes Mr. Daniel to Durham. Grows childish and dies.

THAT the whole life and actions of the before-mentioned John Daniel, might be the more compleat, I have thought proper, not only to give an account how the foregoing history came into the form the reader finds it in, but like wise to inform him further of such transactions as happened, till the death of Mr. Daniel, wherein he had any concern; for which purpose, it may be proper to acquaint the reader, that the continuator of this history, is Ralph Morris, the before mentioned nephew of the reverend Mr. Williams.

I was, (as you have heard) at Cambridge, when captain Nevil, and Mr. Daniel arrived at my uncle’s, and did not return till after captain Nevil’s departure. When I came to my uncle’s, he being then upon a visit, I was startled, at the appearance of a very grave and old man there, whom I was an utter stranger to; and the more so, as knowing all my uncle’s acquaintance, and that he kept but little company. We just bowed to each other, by way of salute, but as he said nothing to me, I was as silent towards him; and going to the kitchin, our maid, upon enquiry, told me, that the stranger came sometime since with captain Nevil, and was left behind him; but, sir, says me, if you had seen him when he first arrived, you would have taken him for some dirty ghost, he made such a strange figure.

I enquired who, and what he was, and whether an Englishman or a foreigner; she said, she knew nothing more of him, than that he spoke good English, and was a very civil old man.

It was not long before my uncle returned, and then he introduced me to old Daniel, as his nephew, and I soon became better acquainted with him. The old man’s story, when I had heard it, affected me prodigiously; and my uncle and I, being both of the opinion that there was much matter in it, very worthy of conveying to posterity, he proposed to me, to take down the several occurrencies of Mr. Daniel’s life in writing, and from thence, to compose a regular narrative of all his transactions; which from the uncommonness of the subject I readily undertook, with Mr. Daniel’s approbation; and my uncle having examined if, with Mr. Daniel, I was desired to digest it into a regular piece; which with what further remarks and passages Mr. Daniel could afterwards recollect, I did in the above manner; choosing rather to let it run in the first person as his own act, than in the third, as that of the reporter only; it being in my mind, more eligible to hear what a man says of himself, than what another says of him. And having finished it, my uncle gave it a place in this study, amongst his other manuscripts.

About two years after this work was finished, my uncle died possessed of a small fortune, which he bequeathed to me, and made me his executor; but made his bequest, subject to my keeping, maintaining and providing for Mr. Daniel, during his life. This condition I readily accepting with his fortune; and being obliged to quit the parsonage house to the next incumbent, I retired with him into the bishoprick of Durham, where I had a small patrimony of my own. Mr. Daniel lived not with me above twelve months longer, before his senses grew very much impaired, and he soon after became quite childish, remaining in that state near two years more, and then died. I buried him in a decent manner, placing a small square marble over his head, with this inscription,

Sistit viator fatigatus Johannes Daniel, oh.

3 Aprilis 1711. Etat 97.


About Shawn P. Wilbur 2010 Articles
Independent scholar, translator and archivist.