THE ANARCHIST ENCYCLOPEDIA:
Gérard de Lacaze-Duthiers
DEBACLE n. f. In the literal sense, the debacle is the consequence of a rise in temperature that, by causing a thaw, breaks the ice covering the rivers. This rupture splits the ice into countless blocks, which, drifting on the current, are sometimes very dangerous. In the figurative sense, the “debacle” is a synonym for ruin, disorder and confusion. The “debacle” of a government, that is the government’s powerlessness to cope with an existing situation. The “debacle” of an army, that is the abandonment of combat and the precipitous and confused flight of the troops before the enemy. “The debacle of capitalism will clear the way for the Proletariat.” “The Debacle:” a famous novel by Emile Zola. In that remarkable work, the great writer describes certain episodes of the war of 1870 and most particularly of the retreat of Sedan.
DEMOCRACY. Democracy is one of the capitalist and bourgeois forms of society. The basic of democracy is the maintenance of the two opposing classes of modern society—that of labor and that of capital—and their collaboration on the foundation of capitalist private property. The expression of that collaboration is the Parliament or representative national Government.
Formally, Democracy proclaims liberty of speech, of the press and of associations, as well as the equality of all before the Law. In reality, all these liberties have a very relative character: they are tolerated as long as they do not contradict the interests of the dominant class: the bourgeoisie.
Democracy maintains intact the principle of capitalist private property. As a result, it leaves to the bourgeoisie the right to entirely hold within its grasp the press, education, science, art, which, in fact, makes the bourgeoisie absolute masters of the nation.
Having a monopoly over economic life, the bourgeoisie can also establish its unlimited power in the political domain. In fact, in the democracies, Parliament and representative Government are only the executive organs of the bourgeoisie.
Consequently, democracy is only one of the aspects of bourgeois dictatorship, mingled with the deceptive formulas of political liberties and fictitious democratic guarantees.
DENI (de justice)
DENTS, HYGIENE DENTAIRE
DESERT n. That which is very seldom frequented, sparsely populated. A deserted country; a deserted house.
We have given the dame of desert to regions that are depleted or subject to almost continuous drought. These regions naturally have an almost total absence of vegetationtation. The principal deserts of the world are the Sahara, the Kalahari, Arabia Petraea, the Gobi and the Colorado. The Sahara is made of sand dunes and rocky plateaus, and is dotted with rare oases; it is inhabited by Moors, Tuaregs and Toubous, who are in large part nomadic populations. It has a length of 5000 kilometers and a width of roughly 1400 kilometers. It is the desert par excellence. The Egyptians came to fertilize certain parts of it through irrigation; but since the crumbling of Egyption civilization agriculture has been absolutely abandoned there. The Kalahari, much less important than the Sahara, is a desert of southern Africa. It is covered with shrubby vegetation and is inhabited by the Betchuanas, belonging to the kaffir tribes of South Africa. Arabia Petraea is the central part of Arabia, and forms an immense, rocky desert plateau where a frightening heat and absolute dryness reigns. It is fortunate for this country that its coasts are particularly fertile, and there they harvest in abundance coffee, cotton, sugar can, etc., etc.…. The Gobi is a large desert in Mongolia that extends between Siberia and Manchurua, and its climate is unequal. As for the Colorado, it is a region of North America that contains important mineral wealth, but which is almost totally uninhabited.
DROITS DE L’HOMME ET DU CITOYEN (Déclarations des)
DROITS DE L’HOMME ET DU CITOYEN (Ligue française pour la défense des)